MARC 主機 00000nam  2200373   4500 
001    AAI3387983 
005    20120426121841.5 
008    120426s2009    ||||||||||||||||| ||eng d 
020    9781109547009 
035    (UMI)AAI3387983 
040    UMI|cUMI 
100 1  Chang, Chieh Ju 
245 10 Global trade, 9/11 attacks, and customs organizations in 
       comparative perspectives 
300    267 p 
500    Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 71-
       01, Section: A, page: 0319 
500    Adviser: Rey Koslowski 
502    Thesis (Ph.D.)--Rutgers The State University of New Jersey
       - Newark, 2009 
520    In this age of globalization where the world is becoming 
       increasingly volatile and violent, safeguarding global 
       trade has become a contentious concern, especially after 
       the 9/11 attacks. The customs organization, as an 
       international stakeholder and a gatekeeper of a nation, 
       has been called upon to simultaneously promote and protect
       international commerce against terrorism and traditional 
       transnational crimes. This author makes the argument that 
       the idea to pursue a balance between trade facilitation 
       and security is correct; however, it is within the 
       formation and execution of policies and programs tailored 
       to achieve such a strategy where challenges can emerge 
520    This dissertation is divided into three parts. Part I 
       states the underlying problem, provides a background of 
       the issue with literature reviews, and gives an overview 
       of the policy machinery process. Part II depicts key case 
       studies that were specifically chosen to illuminate this 
       controversial issue from national, regional, and global 
       perspectives. Each case study attempts to advance the 
       understanding of how key customs organizations address the
       "balance" issue followed by a comparative review. Part III
       discusses existing, updated, and new policy options, 
       followed by recommendations and conclusions. An elite 
       survey was also conducted to expose additional diverging 
       views and converging suggestions 
520    Although progress has been made on this "balance" issue, 
       more needs to be done. No single or easy solution will 
       resolve this conundrum. To optimally address this dilemma,
       two guiding principles must be considered: cooperation and
       the multi-layered approach must be standardized and 
       systematically adopted. In addition to embracing these two
       "force multiplier effect" principles, compromises in 
       policy-making and decision-making processes must also be 
       encouraged. In the final analysis, this dissertation 
       attempts to bring awareness, to foster discussions, and to
       promote effective resolutions to the trade-balancing 
590    School code: 0461 
650  4 Political Science, General 
650  4 Political Science, International Law and Relations 
650  4 Sociology, Criminology and Penology 
690    0615 
690    0616 
690    0627 
710 2  Rutgers The State University of New Jersey - Newark.
       |bGraduate School - Newark 
773 0  |tDissertation Abstracts International|g71-01A 
856 40 |u