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作者 BreastCancer, Committee on the Relationship Between Oral Contraceptives and
書名 Oral Contraceptives and Breast Cancer
出版項 Washington, D.C. : National Academies Press, 1991
©1991
國際標準書號 9780309597630 (electronic bk.)
9780309044936
book jacket
說明 1 online resource (198 pages)
text txt rdacontent
computer c rdamedia
online resource cr rdacarrier
附註 Oral Contraceptives & Breast Cancer -- Copyright -- Preface -- Contents -- Executive Summary -- MAINTAINING SURVEILLANCE -- DEVELOPING A BROADER ARRAY OF CONTRACEPTIVES -- ASSESSING KNOWLEDGE FOR APPLICATION IN CLINICAL PRACTICE -- FILLING GAPS IN BIOLOGICAL AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE -- 1 Introduction and Overview -- BIOLOGICAL PLAUSIBILITY OF A LINK BETWEEN ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES AND BREAST CANCER -- WHAT IS-AND IS NOT-KNOWN -- SEEKING ANSWERS -- 2 Epidemiology: Information Needs and Data Gaps -- EPIDEMIOLOGICAL RESEARCH -- Case-Control Method -- Cohort Studies -- Comparison Groups -- Ecological Studies -- Special Studies -- Women Exposed to Hormones Other than Oral Contraceptives -- Women Genetically Susceptible to Breast Cancer -- Estrogen Metabolism -- Progestins -- Changing Oral Contraceptive Formulations -- SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS -- 3 Biology: Information Needs and Data Gaps -- SIGNAL COMPLEXITY IN BREAST REGULATION -- RESEARCH ISSUES -- Relationships Among Cell Types -- Receptors -- Timing -- Effects of Pregnancy and Lactation -- Pathological Breast Tissue -- Oncogenes -- Molecular Changes Associated with Human Breast Cancer -- Activated ras Mutations -- Overexpression of Tyrosine Kinases -- Amplification of int-2 and myc -- Deletions of Genes -- RESEARCH MODELS -- Breast Cancer Cell Lines -- Short-term Culture of Normal Mammary Epithelium -- Organ Culture -- Nude Mouse Model -- SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS -- 4 Information for Users of the Pill and Health Care Providers -- BENEFITS AND RISKS OF ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES -- Benefits -- Risks -- CURRENT CONTROVERSY -- PRESCRIBING PROBLEMS -- 5 Policy Issues and Recommendations -- MAINTAINING SURVEILLANCE -- Cooperative Research -- Surveillance Requirements of the Food and Drug Administration -- DEVELOPING A BROADER ARRAY OF CONTRACEPTIVES -- ASSESSING KNOWLEDGE FOR APPLICATION IN CLINICAL PRACTICE
FILLING GAPS IN BIOLOGICAL AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE -- References -- Appendixes -- A Oral Contraceptives and Breast Cancer: A Review of the Epidemiological Evidence with an Emphasis ... -- Changing Profile Of Oral Contraceptive Use -- Biological Plausibility -- Epidemiological Studies Of Breast Cancer and Oral Contraceptives -- Ever" Use of Oral Contraceptives -- Duration of Oral Contraceptive Use -- Oral Contraceptive Use Before First Full-term Pregnancy or Before Age 25 -- Duration Since First Use of Oral Contraceptives (Latency) -- Use of Oral Contraceptives in High-Risk Subgroups -- Steroidal Potency of Various Formulations -- Issues to Consider in Reviewing the Epidemiological Evidence -- Discussion -- The Future -- References -- B Oral Contraceptives and Breast Cancer: Review of the Epidemiological Literature -- Methods -- Results -- Risk of Oral Contraceptive Users of All Ages in Developed Countries -- Risk in Oral Contraceptive Users in Developing Countries -- Risk in Oral Contraceptive Users With and Without Various Risk Factors for Breast Cancer -- Risk in Relation to Early Use of Oral Contraceptives -- Screening Bias -- Risk in Relation to Use of Oral Contraceptives Near the Age of Menopause -- Individual Formulations and Constituents of Oral Contraceptives -- Conclusions, Interpretations, and Recommendations for Further Research -- Acknowledgments -- References -- C The Evolving Formulations of Oral Contraceptives -- Implications for Research -- References -- D Animal Models of Sex Steroid Hormones and Mammary Cancer: Lessons for Understanding Studies in Humans -- Direct Tests of Carcinogenicity -- Mice and Rats -- Beagle Dogs -- Pharmacokinetics of Various Steroids in Mice, Rats, and Beagles -- Studies of Mechanisms for Mammary Carcinogenicity of Sex Steroid Hormones in Mice, Rats, and Dogs -- Conclusions
Interesting Questions Raised by Animal Studies -- References -- E Risks and Benefits of Oral Contraceptives: Will Breast Cancer Tip the Balance? -- Established Benefits and Risks -- Balance of Benefits and Risks -- Oral Contraceptives and Breast Cancer -- An Effect in Young Women -- Conclusions -- References -- F List of Background Documents -- Index
Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources
Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries
鏈接 Print version: BreastCancer, Committee on the Relationship Between Oral Contraceptives and Oral Contraceptives and Breast Cancer Washington, D.C. : National Academies Press,c1991 9780309044936
主題 Breast -- Cancer -- Epidemiology -- Congresses.;Oral contraceptives -- Side effects -- Congresses
Electronic books
Alt Author Prevention, Division of Health Promotion and Disease
Medicine, Institute of
Institute of Medicine,
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