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作者 Brodish, Amanda B
書名 Stereotype threat and achievement goals: An integrative approach
國際標準書號 9780549194651
book jacket
說明 86 p
附註 Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 68-08, Section: B, page: 5631
Adviser: Patricia G. Devine
Thesis (Ph.D.)--The University of Wisconsin - Madison, 2007
Knowledge of gender stereotypes about math ability can dramatically impair women's math performance---a phenomenon referred to as stereotype threat (Spencer et al., 1999). Although research has explored individual mediators of stereotype threat, a clear understanding of the psychological process underlying this phenomenon has yet to emerge. I integrated existing stereotype threat research with achievement goal theory (Elliot & McGregor, 1999) and processing efficiency theory (Eysenck & Calvo, 1992), to develop an integrative model of this psychological experience. According to the model, stereotype threat conditions situationally orient stereotyped individuals to avoid appearing incompetent and confirming the stereotype---an orientation consistent with performance-avoidance goal pursuit. Performance-avoidance goal pursuit increases worry, which decreases working memory capacity, directly undermining performance. The goal of this dissertation was to test this model using self-report, behavioral, and psychophysiological assessments of the key process variables outlined in the model. In Study 1, using an existing manipulation of stereotype threat (Schmader & Johns, 2003), women under stereotype threat performed worse on a math test compared to women not under threat. In Study 2, women under stereotype threat and not under threat completed a math test while electroencephalography was recorded. Before taking the math test, participants indicated their test-relevant achievement goals (performance-avoidance, performance-approach, mastery) and their state test anxiety, including worry. While working on the math test, the P3 component of the event-related potential to task-unrelated auditory tones was assessed; P3 responses served as an index of working memory capacity. Results revealed that performance-avoidance goal pursuit and the experience of worry mediated the effect of stereotype threat on performance. Further, participants under stereotype threat evidenced smaller P3 responses compared to participants not under threat, suggesting that participants under stereotype threat had less working memory capacity while working on the test than their no threat counterparts. This model advances the field's thinking about stereotype threat as it considers the experience of stereotype threat as a psychological process rather than simply considering individual mediators in isolation. Implications for developing interventions designed to allow women to perform commensurate with their ability in math are discussed
School code: 0262
DDC
Host Item Dissertation Abstracts International 68-08B
主題 Psychology, Social
Women's Studies
Education, Educational Psychology
0451
0453
0525
Alt Author The University of Wisconsin - Madison
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