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作者 Devarajan, Thamarai selvi
書名 Development of high energy density electrical double layer capacitors
國際標準書號 9781267352767
book jacket
說明 145 p
附註 Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 73-09, Section: B, page:
Adviser: Pradeep Haldar
Thesis (Ph.D.)--State University of New York at Albany, 2012
Electrochemical Double Layer capacitors (EDLCs) have shown themselves as a viable energy storage alternative. EDLCs have high power density, faster charge/discharge, wide operating temperature and long cycle life compared to batteries since it stores charge by physical separation. Despites all their advantages, their low energy density stand as a bottleneck for capacitors. This research aims to increase the energy density of EDLC without compromising the power density
Energy is proportional to the square of cell voltage. Cell voltage is mainly dependent on electrolyte breakdown. Electrolytes also provide ions for charge separation and conduction. Therefore various electrolytes (Solutes and Solvents) which can give high concentration, solubility and decomposition potential were characterized in the first part of the research. In that study, a novel ionic liquid OPBF4 had higher capacitance and comparable voltage window compared to commercial TEABF4 in Acetonitrile. However, the increased polarity of the fixed ring O-atom and the ion-ion interaction in OPBF4 was responsible for lowering its conductivity. Oxygenated ionic compounds with alkyl groups had lower stability due to beta elimination between two electron withdrawing atoms
Volume based thermodynamics and quantum chemical calculations were used to calculate ion size, HOMO/LUMO energies, and free energy changes and establish relationship with capacitance, redox potential and melting points respectively. In addition free energy of fusion was used to predict the melting point. Ion size had correlation with capacitance due to compact double layer formation. Free energy changes did not explain the differences in melting point and predicted dielectric constant was inconsistent with the polarity. This is presumably due to using Van der Waals volume instead of crystal structure volume and insufficient incorporation of polarization term. The HOMO/LUMO energies gave direct relation between oxidation and reduction potential at 1mA/cm 2
A brief study on non-polar co-solvents for EDLC was studied. Among the solvents studied, fluorinated solvents had low melting point and viscosity due to incorporation of asymmetry. However, because of low dielectric constant, TEABF4 is insoluble and had to be mixed with other solvents. The mixed fluorinated solvents had slightly higher voltage window due to decreased donicity of lone pairs of electrons
The second approach to increasing energy density is to increase capacitance. Capacitance is mainly dependent on surface area and porosity of electrodes. Nanostructured materials which can offer multiple charge storage are currently of interest. Hence, novel NiSi nanotubes were studied as electrodes for supercapacitor applications. Silicon material has high capacity and these inert electrodes can enable higher capacitance by controlling the porosity and functional groups in specific electrolytes. The Silicon wafers were made porous by anodization using hydrofluoric acid. In order to improve the conductivity, the porous silicon was doped, then plated with Ni using electroless plating method and annealed to form nickel mono silicide. Gold was deposited on the back side of the electrode to enhance conductivity. Our porous NiSi electrodes gave capacitance of about 1185muF /cm2 in 0.5 M H 2SO4. Further investigation of oxide formation and modification of functional groups will help achieve higher capacitance
School code: 0668
Host Item Dissertation Abstracts International 73-09B
主題 Engineering, Electronics and Electrical
Alt Author State University of New York at Albany. Nanoscale Science and Engineering-Nanoscale Engineering
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