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作者 Mayr, Ernst
書名 The Birds of Northern Melanesia : Speciation, Ecology, and Biogeography
出版項 Cary : Oxford University Press, Incorporated, 2001
©2001
國際標準書號 9780195349665 (electronic bk.)
9780195141702
book jacket
說明 1 online resource (537 pages)
text txt rdacontent
computer c rdamedia
online resource cr rdacarrier
附註 Intro -- Contents -- Introduction -- Part I. Northern Melanesia's Physical and Biological Environment -- 1. Geology and Geological History -- Plate tectonic history -- Volcanism and rocks -- Land bridges -- Summary -- 2. Climate -- 3. Habitats and Vegetation -- Habitats -- Taxonomic composition of the vegetation -- Summary -- 4. Terrestrial Vertebrates Other Than Birds -- Mammals -- Amphibia -- Reptiles -- Comparison of vertebrate classes -- Summary -- Part II. Human History and Impacts -- 5. Human History -- Modern peoples and languages -- Prehistory before European exploration -- European exploration and modern history -- European impacts relevant to bird distributions -- Summary -- 6. Ornithological Exploration of Northern Melanesia -- 7. Exterminations of Bird Populations -- What bird species may now be extinct in the Bismarcks or Solomons? -- What bird species were reported by the first European explorers? -- Bird fossils -- Susceptibility of Northern Melanesian birds to known mechanisms of extermination -- Summary -- Part III. The Northern Melanesian Avifauna -- 8. Family Composition -- Disproportions between the Northern Melanesian and New Guinean source avifaunas -- Disproportions based on a revised classification -- Summary -- 9. Determinants of Island Species Number -- Species/area relation -- Effect of isolation -- Montane species -- Supersaturation -- Summary -- 10. Level of Endemism, Habitat Preference, and Abundance of Each Species -- Level of endemism -- Habitat preference -- Abundance -- Summary -- 11. Overwater Dispersal Ability of Each Species -- Indicators of dispersal -- Formulation of dispersal categories in the Bismarcks and Solomons -- Comparison of the types of evidence -- Comparison of the Bismarcks and Solomons -- Evolution of dispersal ability -- Biological correlates of dispersal abilities -- Summary
12. Distributional Ecology -- Number of islands occupied by each species -- Species incidences -- Differences between the Bismarcks and Solomons in species distributions -- Summary -- Part IV. Colonization Routes -- 13. Proximate Origins of Northern Melanesian Populations -- Endemic subspecies and nonendemic populations -- Endemic allospecies -- Endemic full species and genera -- Summary -- 14. Upstream Colonization and Faunal Dominance -- Exchanges Between the New Hebrides and Northern Melanesia -- Exchanges Between the Bismarcks and Solomons -- Exchanges Between Northern Melanesia and the New Guinea region -- Asymmetry ratios -- Summary -- 15. Ultimate Origins of Northern Melanesian Populations -- Asian immigrants -- Old Australian taxa -- Other taxa -- Total numbers of traceable species -- Summary -- Part V. Taxonomic Analysis: Differences Among Species -- 16. The Problem of Speciation -- What are species? -- Speciation -- Taxonomic terms -- Summary -- 17. Stages of Geographic Speciation Among the Birds of Northern Melanesia -- 18. Absence of Geographic Variation -- Factors predisposing to geographic variation, or to its absence -- Factors predisposing to lack of geographic variation -- Classification of geographically nonvariable species by level of endemism -- Summary -- 19. Geographic Variation: Subspecies -- The frequency of geographic variation -- The variable degree of geographic variation -- Effects of vagility and abundance on geographic variation -- Interpretation of the effects of vagility and abundance -- (Lack of) relation between geographic variability and degree of endemism -- The great speciators -- Geographic variability of montane species -- Summary -- 20. Geographic Variation: Megasubspecies -- Examples illustrating the range of geographic variation at the subspecies level -- Numbers of megasubspecies -- Summary
21. Geographic Variation: Allospecies -- Allospeciation in Northern Melanesia -- Snapshots of colonization -- Discussion -- Summary -- 22. Completed Speciation -- Examples -- Data on all cases of completed speciation -- Single or multiple achievements of sympatry? -- Concordance between taxonomic closeness and geographic overlap -- Older and younger invaders -- Mechanisms of allopatric speciation -- Modes of ecological segregation -- Niche differences between older and younger invaders -- Does ecological segregation evolve in allopatry or sympatry? -- Summary -- Appendix: Remaining cases of completed Speciation -- 23. Hybridization -- 24. Endemic Species and Genera -- Geographic distributions of the endemic full species -- Vagility and abundance of endemic full species -- Distribution between the Solomons and Bismarcks -- How did many endemics become so locally distributed? -- Habitat preference -- Geographic variation -- Summary -- Part VI. Geographic Analysis: Differences Among Islands -- 25. Endemism Index -- Calculation of an endemism index -- Interpretation of the endemism index -- Volcanically defaunated islands -- Land-bridge islands -- Summary -- 26. Pairwise Differentiation Index -- Examples of the pairwise differentiation index -- Geographic barriers in Northern Melanesia -- Dependence of the index on island areas and distance -- Summary -- 27. Pairwise Nonsharing Indices: Differences in Island Species Compositions -- Causes of pairwise differences in island species compositions -- Definitions of two indices -- Comparisons of the three pairwise indices -- Locations of major barriers -- Dependence of the nonsharing indices on island distance and areas -- Summary -- 28. The Establishment of Geographic Isolates -- 29. Interarchipelagal Barriers -- Barrier between Northeast New Guinea and Northern Melanesia
Barriers to the east of Northern Melanesia -- Barrier between the Bismarcks and Solomons -- Definition of ornithogeographic regions -- Summary -- 30. Barriers Within the Bismarcks -- Barrier between New Britain and New Ireland -- The New Ireland group -- The St. Matthias group -- The Northwest Bismarcks -- The smaller Bismarck islands -- Summary -- 31. Barriers Within the Solomons -- The Bukida Group -- The New Georgia group -- The barrier between the Bukida and New Georgia groups -- Malaita -- San Cristobal -- Rennell -- The smaller Solomon islands -- Summary -- 32. Speciation on Fragmented Solomon Islands -- Five consequences of island fission/fusion cycles -- Speciation on Greater Bukida -- New Georgia Group -- Bismarck Pleistocene islands -- Summary -- 33. Differential Extinction and Species Occurrences on Fragmented Pleistocene Islands -- Non-water-crossing species on fragments of Greater Bukida -- Greater New Britain and New Ireland -- Summary -- Part VII. Synthesis, Conclusions, and Prospects -- 34. Conclusions about Speciation -- The biological species concept -- The whole picture of Speciation assembled from snapshots -- Establishment of primary and secondary isolates -- Peripheral isolates -- Summary -- 35. Species Differences, Taxon Cycles, and the Evolution of Dispersal -- The taxon cycle for Melanesian ants -- Habitat shifts during colonization by Northern Melanesian birds -- Four evolutionary stages among Northern Melanesian birds -- The montane avifauna -- Evolutionary changes in dispersal ability -- Summary -- 36. Promising Directions for Future Research -- Priorities for gathering new data -- Improved analyses of area and distance effects -- The time scale of speciation -- Distributions with complex histories -- Comparisons and generalization -- Summary -- Maps -- Appendices
Appendix 1. Systematic List: Breeding Land and Freshwater Native Birds of Northern Melanesia -- Appendix 2. Nonbreeding Visitors to Northern Melanesia -- Appendix 3. Introduced Bird Species in Northern Melanesia -- Appendix 4. Chronologies of Ornithological Exploration -- Appendix 5. Attributes of Each Bird Species -- Appendix 6. Evidence of Overwater Dispersal Ability of Each Species and Allospecies in the Bismarcks and Solomons -- Appendix 7. Distributions and Origins of Northern Melanesian Bird Populations -- References -- Index -- Subject Index -- A -- B -- C -- D -- E -- F -- G -- H -- I -- K -- L -- M -- N -- O -- P -- R -- S -- T -- U -- V -- W -- Y -- Z -- Species Index -- A -- B -- C -- D -- E -- F -- G -- H -- I -- L -- M -- N -- O -- P -- R -- S -- T -- W -- Z
Origins and Acknowledgements Introduction Part 1. Northern Melanesia's Physical and Biological Environment 1. Geology and geological history 2. Climate 3. Habitats and vegetation 4. Terrestrial vertebrates other than birds Part 2. Human History and Impacts 5. Human history 6. Ornithological exploration of Northern Melanesia 7. Exterminations of bird populations Part 3. The Northern Melanesia Avifauna 8. Family composition 9. Determinants of island species number 10. Level of endemism, habitat preference, and abundance of each species 11. Overwater dispersal ability of each species 12. Distributional ecology Part 4. Colonization Routes 13. Proximate origins of Northern Melanesian populations 14. Upstream colonization and faunal dominance 15. Ultimate origins of Northern Melanesian populations Part 5. Taxonomic Analysis: Differences among Species 16. The problem of speciation 17. Stages of geographic speciation among the birds of Northern Melanesia 18. Absence of geographic variation 19. Geographic variation: subspecies 20. Geographic variation: megasubspecies 21. Geographic variation: allospecies 22. Complete speciation 23. Hybridization 24. Endemic species and genera Part 6. Geographical Analysis: Differences among Islands 25. Endemism index 26. Pair-wise differentiation index 27. Pair-wise non-sharing indices: differences in island species compositions 28. The establishment of geographic isolates 29. Inter-archipelagal barriers 30. Barriers within the Bismarcks 31. Barriers within the Solomons 32. Speciation on fragmented Solomon islands 33. Differential extinction and species occurrences on fragmented Pleistocene islands Part 7. Synthesis, Conclusions, and Prospects 34. Conclusions about speciation 35. Species differences: taxon cycles, and the evolution of dispersal 36. Promising directions
for future research Maps Appendices References Index
Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources
Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries
鏈接 Print version: Mayr, Ernst The Birds of Northern Melanesia : Speciation, Ecology, and Biogeography Cary : Oxford University Press, Incorporated,c2001 9780195141702
主題 Birds -- Papua New Guinea -- Bismarck Archipelago.;Birds -- Solomon Islands
Electronic books
Alt Author Diamond, Jared
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