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作者 Fingas, Mervin
書名 Oil Spill Science and Technology
出版項 Saint Louis : Elsevier Science & Technology, 2010
©2011
國際標準書號 9781856179447 (electronic bk.)
9781856179430
book jacket
說明 1 online resource (1189 pages)
text txt rdacontent
computer c rdamedia
online resource cr rdacarrier
附註 Front Cover -- Oil Spill Science and Technology -- Copyright -- Contents -- Preface -- About the Contributors -- Part I - Introduction and the Oil Spill Problem -- Chapter 1 Introduction -- 1.1 Introduction -- 1.2 A Word on the Frequency of Spills -- Chapter 2 Spill Occurrences: A World Overview -- 2.1 Introduction -- 2.2 Executive Summary -- 2.3 Overview of Spill Occurrences -- References -- Part II - Types of Oils and Their Properties -- Chapter 3 Introduction to Oil Chemistry and Properties -- 3.1 Introduction -- 3.2 The Composition of Oil -- 3.3 Properties of Oil -- References -- Part III - Oil Analysis and Remote Sensing -- Chapter 4 Measurement of Oil Physical Properties -- 4.1 Introduction -- 4.2 Bulk Properties of Crude Oil and Fuel Products -- 4.3 Hydrocarbon Groups -- 4.4 Quality Assurance and Control -- 4.5 Effects of Evaporative Weathering on Oil Bulk Properties -- References -- Appendix 4.1 -- Chapter 5 Introduction to Oil Chemical Analysis -- 5.1 Introduction -- 5.2 Sampling and Laboratory Analysis -- 5.3 Chromatography -- 5.4 Identification and Forensic Analysis -- 5.5 Field Analysis -- References -- Chapter 6 Oil Spill Remote Sensing: A Review -- 6.1 Introduction -- 6.2 Visible Indications of Oil -- 6.3 Optical Sensors -- 6.4 Laser Fluorosensors -- 6.5 Microwave Sensors -- 6.6 Slick Thickness Determination -- 6.7 Acoustic Systems -- 6.8 Integrated Airborne Sensor Systems -- 6.9 Satellite Remote Sensing -- 6.10 Oil under Ice Detection -- 6.11 Underwater Detection and Tracking -- 6.12 Small Remote-controlled Aircraft -- 6.13 Real-time Displays and Printers -- 6.14 Routine Surveillance -- 6.15 Future Trends -- 6.16 Recommendations -- References -- Chapter 7 Laser Fluorosensors -- 7.1 Principles of Operation -- 7.2 Oil Classification -- 7.3 Existing Operational Units -- 7.4 Aircraft Requirements -- 7.5 Cost Estimates
7.6 Conclusions -- References -- Part IV - Behaviour of Oil in the Environment and Spill Modeling -- Chapter 8 Introduction to Spill Modeling -- 8.1 Introduction -- 8.2 An Overview of Weathering -- 8.3 Movement of Oil and Oil Spill Modeling -- References -- Chapter 9 Evaporation Modeling -- 9.1 Introduction -- 9.2 Review of Theoretical Concepts -- 9.3 Development of New Diffusion-Regulated Models -- 9.4 Complexities to the Diffusion-Regulated Model -- 9.5 Use of Evaporation Equations in Spill Models -- 9.6 Comparison of Model Approaches -- 9.7 Summary -- References -- Chapter 10 Models for Water-in-Oil Emulsion Formation -- 10.1 Introduction -- 10.2 Early Modeling of Emulsification -- 10.3 First Two Model Developments -- 10.4 New Model Development -- 10.5 Development of an Emulsion Kinetics Estimator -- 10.6 Discussion -- 10.7 Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 11 Oil Spill Trajectory Forecasting Uncertainty and Emergency Response -- 11.1 Introduction: The Importance of Forecast Uncertainty -- 11.2 The Basics of Oil Spill Modeling -- 11.3 Trajectory Model Uncertainties -- 11.4 Trajectory Forecast Verification -- 11.5 Summary and Conclusions -- References -- Part V - Physical Spill Countermeasures on Water -- Chapter 12 Physical Spill Countermeasures -- 12.1 Containment on Water -- 12.2 Skimmers -- 12.3 Sorbents -- 12.4 Manual Recovery -- 12.5 Temporary Storage -- 12.6 Pumps -- 12.7 Separation -- 12.8 Disposal -- References -- Chapter 13 Weather Effects on Oil Spill Countermeasures -- 13.1 Introduction -- 13.2 Review of Literature on Spill Countermeasures and Weather -- 13.3 Development of Models for Effectiveness of Countermeasures -- 13.4 Overview of Weather Limitations -- 13.5 Summary and Conclusions -- References -- Part VI - Treating Agents -- Chapter 14 Spill-Treating Agents -- 14.1 Introduction -- 14.2 Dispersants
14.3 Surface-Washing Agents -- 14.4 Emulsion Breakers and Inhibitors -- 14.5 Recovery Enhancers -- 14.6 Solidifiers -- 14.7 Sinking Agents -- 14.8 Biodegradation Agents -- Chapter 15 Oil Spill Dispersants: A Technical Summary -- 15.1 Introduction -- 15.2 The Basic Physics and Chemistry of Dispersants -- 15.3 The Basic Nature of Dispersions or Oil-in-Water Emulsions -- 15.4 Effectiveness -- 15.5 Monitoring -- 15.6 Physical Studies -- 15.7 Toxicity -- 15.8 Biodegradation -- 15.9 Other Information -- 15.10 Summary and Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 16 A Practical Guide to Chemical Dispersion for Oil Spills -- 16.1 Introduction and Decision Making -- 16.2 How Dispersants Are Used -- 16.3 Safety and Postdispersion Actions -- Additional Information -- Appendix A Specific Spill Scenarios and Dispersion Strategies -- Appendix B Nomograms to Calculate Spreading and Viscosity with Time -- Chapter 17 Procedures for the Testing and Approval of Oil Spill Treatment Products in the United KingdomdWhat They Are and Considerations for Development -- 17.1 Background and Introduction -- 17.2 Toxicity Testing Procedures -- 17.3 Test Description -- 17.4 Testing with Heavy Fuel Oils -- 17.5 The 2007 UK Scheme Review -- 17.6 Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 18 Formulation Changes in Oil Spill Dispersants: Are They Toxicologically Significant? -- 18.1 Introduction -- 18.2 Materials and Methods -- 18.3 Results -- 18.4 Discussion -- References -- Chapter 19 Environment Canada's Methods for Assessing Oil Spill Treating Agents -- 19.1 Introduction -- 19.2 Toxicity and Effectiveness of Treating Agents for Oil Spills -- 19.3 Approval for Use of Treating Agents in Canadian Waters -- 19.4 Challenges to Current Toxicity Test Protocols -- 19.5 Conclusions -- References
Chapter 20 The United States Environmental Protection Agency: National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan, Subpart J Product Schedule (40 Code of Federal Regulations 300.900) -- 20.1 Introduction -- 20.2 Why Is There a Product Schedule? -- 20.3 Authorities for a Product Schedule -- 20.4 Information Requested from Manufacturers -- 20.5 Agency Activities -- 20.6 Practical Utility of the Data -- 20.7 Authorities for Use -- 20.8 Federal Agencies' Role within the Regional Response Team -- 20.9 Does Listing Mean the Environmental Protection Agency Approves and Endorses a Product? -- 20.10 Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 21 Surface-Washing Agents or Beach Cleaners -- 21.1 Introduction to Surface-Washing Agents -- 21.2 Review of Major Surface-Washing Agent Issues -- 21.3 Other Issues -- References -- Appendix 21.1 Environment Canada's Test Method 33,39 -- EPA Draft Protocol35,36,51 -- Chapter 22 Review of Solidifiers -- 22.1 Introduction to Solidifiers -- 22.2 Review of Major Solidifier Issues -- 22.3 Other Issues -- 22.4 Summary -- References -- Appendix 22.1 Testing Procedures from Environment Canada -- Brief Description of the Test -- Equipment and Supplies -- Calculation -- Part VII - In-Situ Burning -- Chapter 23 An Overview of In-Situ Burning -- 23.1 Introduction -- 23.2 An Overview of in-situ Burning -- 23.3 Assessment of Feasibility of Burning -- 23.4 Equipment-Selection, Deployment, and Operation -- 23.5. Possible Spill Situations -- 23.6 Post-burn Actions -- 23.7 Health and Safety Precautions during Burning -- References -- Part VIII - Shoreline Countermeasures -- Chapter 24 Shoreline Countermeasures -- 24.1 Introduction -- 24.2 Shoreline Treatment Decision Process -- 24.3 Treatment Options -- 24.4 Treatment by Shore Type -- 24.5 Waste Generation -- References -- Chapter 25 Automated Assessment and Data Management
25.1 Introduction -- 25.2 Automated Processing and Data Management: Goals and Definition -- 25.3 Shoreline Observations Data Processing -- 25.4 Assessment Automation Methods and Tools -- 25.5 Shoreline Assessment Data Management Issues -- References -- Part IX - Submerged Oil -- Chapter 26 Submerged Oil -- 26.1 Introduction -- 26.2 Submerged Oil Characteristics -- 26.3 Review of Recent Submerged Oil Spills -- 26.4 Submerged Oil Spill Response Methods and Recommendations for Future Work -- References -- Part X - Effects of Oil in the Environment -- Chapter 27 Effects of Oil in the Environment -- 27.1 Introduction -- 27.2 Some Definitions -- 27.3 Size Matters: Seeps vs. Spills -- 27.4 An "Equation" to Convey Toxic Impact -- 27.5 Route of Exposure: The Anthrax Example -- 27.6 Route of Exposure: Oil -- 27.7 Oil Chemistry, Physical Behavior, and Oil Effects -- 27.8 Freshwater/Saltwater Differences -- 27.9 Tropical Environments -- 27.10 Arctic Environments -- 27.11 Ecological Effects of Oil Spills -- 27.12 The Future of Oil Effects Science -- 27.13 Summary and Conclusions -- References -- Part XI - Contingency Planning and Command -- Chapter 28 Introduction to Oil Spill Contingency Planning and Response Initiation -- 28.1 An Overview of Response to Oil Spills -- 28.2 Activation of Contingency Plans -- 28.3 Training -- 28.4 Structure of Response Organizations -- 28.5 Oil Spill Cooperatives -- 28.6 Private and Government Response Organizations -- Chapter 29 The Role of the International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation Limited -- Additional Information -- Chapter 30 Safety Issues at Spills -- 30.1 Introduction -- 30.2 Organization Structure -- 30.3 Health and Safety Risk Analysis/Risk Assessment -- 30.4 Air Monitoring -- 30.5 Site Safety and Health Plan -- 30.6 Different Types of Hazards on Site -- 30.7 Recommended Safety Procedures
30.8 Emergency Procedures During a Response
The National Academy of Sciences estimate that 1.7 to 8.8 million tons of oil are released into world's water every year, of which more than 70% is directly related to human activities. The effects of these spills are all too apparent: dead wildlife, oil covered marshlands and contaminated water chief among them. This reference will provide scientists, engineers and practitioners with the latest methods use for identify and eliminating spills before they occur and develop the best available techniques, equipment and materials for dealing with oil spills in every environment. Topics covered include: spill dynamics and behaviour, spill treating agents, and cleanup techniques such as: in situ burning, mechanical containment or recovery, chemical and biological methods and physical methods are used to clean up shorelines. Also included are the fate and effects of oil spills and means to assess damage. Covers spill dynamics and behaviour Definitive guide to spill treating agents Complete coverage of cleanup techniques Includes fate and effects of oil spills and means to assess damage
Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources
Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries
鏈接 Print version: Fingas, Mervin Oil Spill Science and Technology Saint Louis : Elsevier Science & Technology,c2010 9781856179430
主題 Oil spills -- Prevention.;Oil spills -- Cleanup.;Oil spills -- Management
Electronic books
Alt Author Fingas, Mervin
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