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作者 Jain, Danesh
書名 The Indo-Aryan Languages
出版項 Florence : Taylor & Francis Group, 2003
©2004
國際標準書號 9780203945315 (electronic bk.)
9780700711307
book jacket
版本 1st ed
說明 1 online resource (1086 pages)
text txt rdacontent
computer c rdamedia
online resource cr rdacarrier
系列 RoutledgeCurzon Language Family
RoutledgeCurzon Language Family
附註 Cover -- Title Page -- Copyright Page -- Contents -- Preface -- Preface to the paperback edition -- General abbreviations -- List of maps -- 1.1 Indo-Aryan Languages in the South Asian subcontinent -- 1.2 Dardic and Nuristani -- 5.1 Location of Aśokan inscriptions -- 14.1 Bhojpuri speech area -- 16.1 The Panjabi area -- List of figures -- 1.1 Indo-Aryan mother tongue speakers in South Asia (in millions) -- 1.2 The surrounding language families of Indo-Aryan and the development of features in Indo-Aryan languages -- 2.1 Multilingualism across language families in three districts of India -- 2.2 Multilingualism in India (percentage of trilinguals and bilinguals in 1991) -- 3.1 Example of script developments from Brahml to the modern scripts: the consonant la -- 10.1 Vectors and the temporal-causal structure of main verbs -- 10.2 The polysemic variation of vector verbs -- List of contributors -- 1 General introduction -- 1 The Indo-Aryan languages -- 1.1 General -- 1.2 Multilingualism across language families -- 1.3 Stages of Indo-Aryan -- 1.3.1 Introduction -- 1.3.2 Major characteristics of different stages -- 1.3.2.1 Old Indo-Aryan -- 1.3.2.2 Middle Indo-Aryan -- 1.4 Subgroups of Indo-Aryan languages -- 2 Other relations -- 2.1 Relations with Indo-European Languages -- 2.1.1 Indo-Iranian -- 2.1.2 Nuristani -- 2.1.3 Bangani -- 2.2 Relations to non-Indo-European languages -- 2.2.1 General -- 2.2.2 Speech varieties as viewed in Sanskrit sources -- 2.2.3 Modern views -- 2.2.3.1 Retroflex and dental consonants -- 2.2.3.2 Other features -- 2.2.3.3 Conclusions -- 3 The homeland question -- Acknowledgements -- References -- 1.1 Mother tongue speakers of Indo-Aryan and other language families in South Asia -- 1.2 Mother tongue speakers of five language families in South Asia, 1991
1.3 Reflexes of PIE *k̂, ĝ, ĝh, kw, gw, gwh in Indo-Aryan, Iranian and Nuristani -- 1.1 Indo-Aryan mother tongue speakers in South Asia (in millions) -- 1.2 The surrounding language families of Indo-Aryan and the development of features in Indo-Aryan languages -- 1.1 Indo-Aryan Languages in the South Asian subcontinent -- 1.2 Dardic and Nuristani -- 2 Sociolinguistics of the Indo-Aryan languages -- 1 Introduction -- 1.1 Linguistic diversity -- 2 The study of language use -- 2.1 Language use in Old Indo-Aryan -- 2.2 Language use in Middle Indo-Aryan -- 3 The role and use of script -- 3.1 One script, many languages -- 3.2 Many scripts, one language -- 4 Multilingualism -- 4.1 Multilingualism across language families -- 4.2 Trilingualism and bilingualism -- 4.3 Language maintenance and language shift -- 5 Hindi and Urdu -- 5.1 Urdu and Muslims -- 6 Language use in Delhi courts -- 6.1 Vocabulary -- 7 Language planning -- 7.1 New coinages in Hindi -- 8 Census as a language database -- 9 An ethnography of speaking -- 9.1 Pronominal usage -- 9.2 A plea for ap-o -- 10 Conclusion -- References -- Further reading -- 2.1 The use of Māgadhī in Sanskrit drama (after Bhattacharya 1993: 27-54) -- 2.2 Religions and IA languages usually associated with their canonical literature -- 2.3 Scripts used for writing Panjabi and their usual religious association -- 2.4 Multilingualism within and across language families in three districts of India. Census of India 1981 -- 2.5 The use of the word court and its equivalents in Delhi's courts -- 2.6 A change in the distribution of features of Hindi aiyo and ao -- 2.1 Multilingualism across language families in three districts of India -- 2.2 Multilingualism in India (percentage of trilinguals and bilinguals in 1991) -- 3 Writing systems of the Indo-Aryan languages
1 General overview: scripts used for the Indo-Aryan languages -- 1.1 Scripts of the NIA languages -- 1.2 Scripts of the OIA and MIA languages -- 1.3 Systemic features of the Brāhmī-derived scripts -- 1.4 Overview of the history and family relationship of the Brāhmī-derived scripts -- 1.5 Cultural and historical factors underlying script developments -- 1.5.1 The status of written vis-à-vis oral language -- 1.5.2 Problems of standardization and nomenclature of scripts -- 1.6 Sources for the historical study of the Indian scripts -- 2 The scripts used for the major modern IA languages -- 2.1 Nagari (Devanagari) script -- 2.1.1 Nagari for Sanskrit (table 3.1) -- 2.1.2 Nagari for Hindi -- 2.1.3 Nagari for Marathi -- 2.1.4 Nagari for Nepali -- 2.2 Gujarati script (table 3.2) -- 2.3 Bangla (Bengali) script (table 3.2) -- 2.4 Oriya script (table 3.2) -- 2.5 Gurmukhi script (table 3.2) -- 2.6 Sinhala script (table 3.2) -- 3 The origins and early history of the Indic scripts -- 3.1 Brāhmī script (table 3.3) -- 3.1.1 The antiquity of Brāhmī script -- 3.1.2 The origin of Brāhmī script -- 3.1.3 Brāhmī script and the IA languages -- 3.2 Kharoṣṭhī script (table 3.4) -- 3.2.1 Systemic characteristics of Kharoṣṭhī -- 3.2.2 Geographical and chronological range of Kharoṣṭhī -- 3.2.3 Origin and antiquity of Kharoṣṭhī -- 3.2.4 The Kharoṣṭhī script and the Gāndhārī language -- 3.2.5 Historical development of Kharoṣṭhī -- 4 The historical development of Brāhmī and its derivatives (figure 3.1) -- 4.1 General patterns and principles -- 4.2 Early developments: the first local variants (second to first centuries BC) -- 4.3 The Middle Brāhmī period (first to third centuries AD) -- 4.4 The late Brāhmī period (fourth to sixth centuries AD) -- 4.5 The transitional scripts (seventh to tenth centuries AD) -- 4.6 The emergence of the modern scripts
5 Non-Indian scripts used for IA languages -- 5.1 Perso-Arabic scripts -- 5.2 Roman script -- Acknowledgement -- References -- Further reading -- 3.1 Nagari script as used for Sanskrit -- 3.2 The major scripts used for NIA languages -- 3.3 Early Brāhmī script (normalized forms from Aśokan and other early inscriptions, third century BC) -- 3.4 Kharoṣṭhī script (representative manuscript forms of the middle period, c. first century AD) -- 3.1 Example of script developments from Brāhmī to the modern scripts: the consonant la -- 4 Sanskrit -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Phonetics and phonology -- 2.1 Phonological system -- 2.2 Vowels -- 2.3 Consonants -- 2.4 Inventory and arrangement of sounds -- 2.5 Phonological rules -- 2.5.1 General -- 2.5.2 Consonants -- 2.5.3 Tone sandhi -- 2.5.4 Grammatically determined adjustments -- 3 Grammar -- 3.1 Verb system -- 3.1.1 Introduction -- 3.1.2 Endings -- 3.1.3 Tense forms -- 3.1.3.1 Present stems -- 3.1.3.2 Preterit classes -- 3.1.3.2.1 Introduction -- 3.1.3.2.2 Imperfect -- 3.1.3.2.3 Aorist -- 3.1.3.2.3a Sigmatic aorist -- 3.1.3.2.3b Root aorist -- 3.1.3.2.3c Thematic aorist -- 3.1.3.2.3d Reduplicated aorist -- 3.1.3.2.4 Perfect -- 3.1.3.3 Future -- 3.1.4 Non-indicative forms -- 3.1.4.1 Imperative -- 3.1.4.2 Optative and precative -- 3.1.4.3 Conditional -- 3.1.5 Nominal forms associated with the verb system -- 3.1.6 Derived verbs -- 3.1.6.1 Causatives -- 3.1.6.2 Desideratives -- 3.1.6.3 Intensives -- 3.1.6.4 Denominatives -- 3.1.7 Dialectal and historical differences -- 3.2 Nominal system -- 3.2.1 Introduction -- 3.2.2 Case system, stems, and endings -- 3.2.2.1 Case distinctions -- 3.2.2.2 Nominal stem alternation -- 3.2.2.3 Pronominal stem alternation -- 3.2.2.4 Distribution of endings -- 3.2.3 Number words -- 3.2.4 Derived nominals -- 3.2.4.1 Primary derivates from verbal bases -- 3.2.4.2 Derivates with taddhita affixes
3.2.4.3 Compounds -- 3.2.5 Gender marking -- 3.3 Aspects of syntax -- 4 Script -- Acknowledgement -- References -- Further reading -- 4.1 Primary and secondary verb endings -- 4.2 Optative forms -- 4.3 Nominal forms -- 4.4 Devanāgarī symbols -- 5 Aśokan Prakrit and Pāli -- 1 Introduction -- 1.1 The Middle Indo-Aryan languages -- 1.2 Aśokan Prakrit -- 1.3 Pāli -- 1.4 The Theravāda texts -- 2 Phonology -- 2.1 The sound system -- 2.2 Vowels -- 2.2.1 The system of vowels -- 2.2.2 The law of mora -- 2.2.3 Word-final vowels -- 2.2.4 Assimilation and dissimilation of vowels -- 2.2.5 Colouring of vowels -- 2.2.6 Changing vowel quantity/quality in foreign words -- 2.2.7 Contraction of vowels -- 2.2.8 Anaptyctic vowels -- 2.2.9 Prothetic vowels -- 2.2.10 Saṁprasāraṇa -- 2.2.11 Changing vowel quantity/quality due to analogy etc. -- 2.2.12 Vṛddhi of primary and secondary a, i and u -- 2.2.13 Shortening and lengthening of vowels at the boundary of compounds -- 2.3 Consonants -- 2.3.1 The system of consonants -- 2.3.2 Consonantal sound change -- 2.3.3 Development of OIA word-initial consonants -- 2.3.4 Assimilation of OIA consonant clusters -- 2.3.5 Retention/restoration of (OIA) consonant clusters -- 2.3.6 Peculiar assimilation of OIA consonant clusters -- 2.3.7 Assimilation of clusters of three consonants -- 2.3.8 Assimilation of consonant clusters at the boundaries of compounds -- 2.3.9 Deaspiration of CCh-clusters -- 2.3.10 Irregular sound changes -- 2.4 Sandhi -- 2.4.1 Vocalic sandhi -- 2.4.2 Consonantal sandhi -- 2.4.3 Bridging of hiatus -- 2.4.4 Lengthening of -aṁ before an enclitic -- 2.4.5 Dropping of initial vowels in sandhi -- 3 Morphology -- 3.1 The noun -- 3.2 Paradigms -- 3.2.1 a-inflexion -- 3.2.2 ā-inflexion -- 3.2.3 i/u-inflexion -- 3.2.4 ī/ū-inflexion -- 3.2.5 Consonantal inflexion -- 3.2.6 Inflexion of sakha-lsakha(r)- 'friend'
3.2.7 i/(n)-inflexion
The Indo-Aryan languages are spoken by at least 700 million people throughout India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka and the Maldive Islands. They have a claim to great antiquity, with the earliest Vedic Sanskrit texts dating to the end of the second millennium B.C. With texts in Old Indo-Aryan, Middle Indo-Aryan and Modern Indo-Aryan, this language family supplies a historical documentation of language change over a longer period than any other subgroup of Indo-European. This volume is divided into two main sections dealing with general matters and individual languages. Each chapter on the individual language covers the phonology and grammar (morphology and syntax) of the language and its writing system, and gives the historical background and information concerning the geography of the language and the number of its speakers
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Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries
鏈接 Print version: Jain, Danesh The Indo-Aryan Languages Florence : Taylor & Francis Group,c2003 9780700711307
主題 Indo-Aryan languages.;South Asia -- Languages
Electronic books
Alt Author Cardona, George
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