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050  4 PK116 -- .I53 2007eb 
082 0  491.1 
100 1  Jain, Danesh 
245 14 The Indo-Aryan Languages 
250    1st ed 
264  1 Florence :|bTaylor & Francis Group,|c2003 
264  4 |c©2004 
300    1 online resource (1086 pages) 
336    text|btxt|2rdacontent 
337    computer|bc|2rdamedia 
338    online resource|bcr|2rdacarrier 
490 1  RoutledgeCurzon Language Family 
505 0  Cover -- Title Page -- Copyright Page -- Contents -- 
       Preface -- Preface to the paperback edition -- General 
       abbreviations -- List of maps -- 1.1 Indo-Aryan Languages 
       in the South Asian subcontinent -- 1.2 Dardic and 
       Nuristani -- 5.1 Location of Aśokan inscriptions -- 14.1 
       Bhojpuri speech area -- 16.1 The Panjabi area -- List of 
       figures -- 1.1 Indo-Aryan mother tongue speakers in South 
       Asia (in millions) -- 1.2 The surrounding language 
       families of Indo-Aryan and the development of features in 
       Indo-Aryan languages -- 2.1 Multilingualism across 
       language families in three districts of India -- 2.2 
       Multilingualism in India (percentage of trilinguals and 
       bilinguals in 1991) -- 3.1 Example of script developments 
       from Brahml to the modern scripts: the consonant la -- 
       10.1 Vectors and the temporal-causal structure of main 
       verbs -- 10.2 The polysemic variation of vector verbs -- 
       List of contributors -- 1 General introduction -- 1 The 
       Indo-Aryan languages -- 1.1 General -- 1.2 Multilingualism
       across language families -- 1.3 Stages of Indo-Aryan -- 
       1.3.1 Introduction -- 1.3.2 Major characteristics of 
       different stages -- 1.3.2.1 Old Indo-Aryan -- 1.3.2.2 
       Middle Indo-Aryan -- 1.4 Subgroups of Indo-Aryan languages
       -- 2 Other relations -- 2.1 Relations with Indo-European 
       Languages -- 2.1.1 Indo-Iranian -- 2.1.2 Nuristani -- 
       2.1.3 Bangani -- 2.2 Relations to non-Indo-European 
       languages -- 2.2.1 General -- 2.2.2 Speech varieties as 
       viewed in Sanskrit sources -- 2.2.3 Modern views -- 
       2.2.3.1 Retroflex and dental consonants -- 2.2.3.2 Other 
       features -- 2.2.3.3 Conclusions -- 3 The homeland question
       -- Acknowledgements -- References -- 1.1 Mother tongue 
       speakers of Indo-Aryan and other language families in 
       South Asia -- 1.2 Mother tongue speakers of five language 
       families in South Asia, 1991 
505 8  1.3 Reflexes of PIE *k̂, ĝ, ĝh, kw, gw, gwh  in Indo-Aryan
       , Iranian and Nuristani -- 1.1 Indo-Aryan mother tongue 
       speakers in South Asia (in millions) -- 1.2 The 
       surrounding language families of Indo-Aryan and the 
       development of features in Indo-Aryan languages -- 1.1 
       Indo-Aryan Languages in the South Asian subcontinent -- 
       1.2 Dardic and Nuristani -- 2 Sociolinguistics of the Indo
       -Aryan languages -- 1 Introduction -- 1.1 Linguistic 
       diversity -- 2 The study of language use -- 2.1 Language 
       use in Old Indo-Aryan -- 2.2 Language use in Middle Indo-
       Aryan -- 3 The role and use of script -- 3.1 One script, 
       many languages -- 3.2 Many scripts, one language -- 4 
       Multilingualism -- 4.1 Multilingualism across language 
       families -- 4.2 Trilingualism and bilingualism -- 4.3 
       Language maintenance and language shift -- 5 Hindi and 
       Urdu -- 5.1 Urdu and Muslims -- 6 Language use in Delhi 
       courts -- 6.1 Vocabulary -- 7 Language planning -- 7.1 New
       coinages in Hindi -- 8 Census as a language database -- 9 
       An ethnography of speaking -- 9.1 Pronominal usage -- 9.2 
       A plea for ap-o -- 10 Conclusion -- References -- Further 
       reading -- 2.1 The use of Māgadhī in Sanskrit drama (after
       Bhattacharya 1993: 27-54) -- 2.2 Religions and IA 
       languages usually associated with their canonical 
       literature -- 2.3 Scripts used for writing Panjabi and 
       their usual religious association -- 2.4 Multilingualism 
       within and across language families in three districts of 
       India. Census of India 1981 -- 2.5 The use of the word 
       court and its equivalents in Delhi's courts -- 2.6 A 
       change in the distribution of features of Hindi aiyo and 
       ao -- 2.1 Multilingualism across language families in 
       three districts of India -- 2.2 Multilingualism in India 
       (percentage of trilinguals and bilinguals in 1991) -- 3 
       Writing systems of the Indo-Aryan languages 
505 8  1 General overview: scripts used for the Indo-Aryan 
       languages -- 1.1 Scripts of the NIA languages -- 1.2 
       Scripts of the OIA and MIA languages -- 1.3 Systemic 
       features of the Brāhmī-derived scripts -- 1.4 Overview of 
       the history and family relationship of the Brāhmī-derived 
       scripts -- 1.5 Cultural and historical factors underlying 
       script developments -- 1.5.1 The status of written vis-à-
       vis oral language -- 1.5.2 Problems of standardization and
       nomenclature of scripts -- 1.6 Sources for the historical 
       study of the Indian scripts -- 2 The scripts used for the 
       major modern IA languages -- 2.1 Nagari (Devanagari) 
       script -- 2.1.1 Nagari for Sanskrit (table 3.1) -- 2.1.2 
       Nagari for Hindi -- 2.1.3 Nagari for Marathi -- 2.1.4 
       Nagari for Nepali -- 2.2 Gujarati script (table 3.2) -- 
       2.3 Bangla (Bengali) script (table 3.2) -- 2.4 Oriya 
       script (table 3.2) -- 2.5 Gurmukhi script (table 3.2) -- 
       2.6 Sinhala script (table 3.2) -- 3 The origins and early 
       history of the Indic scripts -- 3.1 Brāhmī script (table 
       3.3) -- 3.1.1 The antiquity of Brāhmī script -- 3.1.2 The 
       origin of Brāhmī script -- 3.1.3 Brāhmī script and the IA 
       languages -- 3.2 Kharoṣṭhī script (table 3.4) -- 3.2.1 
       Systemic characteristics of Kharoṣṭhī -- 3.2.2 
       Geographical and chronological range of Kharoṣṭhī -- 3.2.3
       Origin and antiquity of Kharoṣṭhī -- 3.2.4 The Kharoṣṭhī 
       script and the Gāndhārī language -- 3.2.5 Historical 
       development of Kharoṣṭhī -- 4 The historical development 
       of Brāhmī and its derivatives (figure 3.1) -- 4.1 General 
       patterns and principles -- 4.2 Early developments: the 
       first local variants (second to first centuries BC) -- 4.3
       The Middle Brāhmī period (first to third centuries AD) -- 
       4.4 The late Brāhmī period (fourth to sixth centuries AD) 
       -- 4.5 The transitional scripts (seventh to tenth 
       centuries AD) -- 4.6 The emergence of the modern scripts 
505 8  5 Non-Indian scripts used for IA languages -- 5.1 Perso-
       Arabic scripts -- 5.2 Roman script -- Acknowledgement -- 
       References -- Further reading -- 3.1 Nagari script as used
       for Sanskrit -- 3.2 The major scripts used for NIA 
       languages -- 3.3 Early Brāhmī script (normalized forms 
       from Aśokan and other early inscriptions, third century 
       BC) -- 3.4 Kharoṣṭhī script (representative manuscript 
       forms of the middle period, c. first century AD) -- 3.1 
       Example of script developments from Brāhmī to the modern 
       scripts: the consonant la -- 4 Sanskrit -- 1 Introduction 
       -- 2 Phonetics and phonology -- 2.1 Phonological system --
       2.2 Vowels -- 2.3 Consonants -- 2.4 Inventory and 
       arrangement of sounds -- 2.5 Phonological rules -- 2.5.1 
       General -- 2.5.2 Consonants -- 2.5.3 Tone sandhi -- 2.5.4 
       Grammatically determined adjustments -- 3 Grammar -- 3.1 
       Verb system -- 3.1.1 Introduction -- 3.1.2 Endings -- 
       3.1.3 Tense forms -- 3.1.3.1 Present stems -- 3.1.3.2 
       Preterit classes -- 3.1.3.2.1 Introduction -- 3.1.3.2.2 
       Imperfect -- 3.1.3.2.3 Aorist -- 3.1.3.2.3a Sigmatic 
       aorist -- 3.1.3.2.3b Root aorist -- 3.1.3.2.3c Thematic 
       aorist -- 3.1.3.2.3d Reduplicated aorist -- 3.1.3.2.4 
       Perfect -- 3.1.3.3 Future -- 3.1.4 Non-indicative forms --
       3.1.4.1 Imperative -- 3.1.4.2 Optative and precative -- 
       3.1.4.3 Conditional -- 3.1.5 Nominal forms associated with
       the verb system -- 3.1.6 Derived verbs -- 3.1.6.1 
       Causatives -- 3.1.6.2 Desideratives -- 3.1.6.3 Intensives 
       -- 3.1.6.4 Denominatives -- 3.1.7 Dialectal and historical
       differences -- 3.2 Nominal system -- 3.2.1 Introduction --
       3.2.2 Case system, stems, and endings -- 3.2.2.1 Case 
       distinctions -- 3.2.2.2 Nominal stem alternation -- 
       3.2.2.3 Pronominal stem alternation -- 3.2.2.4 
       Distribution of endings -- 3.2.3 Number words -- 3.2.4 
       Derived nominals -- 3.2.4.1 Primary derivates from verbal 
       bases -- 3.2.4.2 Derivates with taddhita affixes 
505 8  3.2.4.3 Compounds -- 3.2.5 Gender marking -- 3.3 Aspects 
       of syntax -- 4 Script -- Acknowledgement -- References -- 
       Further reading -- 4.1 Primary and secondary verb endings 
       -- 4.2 Optative forms -- 4.3 Nominal forms -- 4.4 
       Devanāgarī symbols -- 5 Aśokan Prakrit and Pāli -- 1 
       Introduction -- 1.1 The Middle Indo-Aryan languages -- 1.2
       Aśokan Prakrit -- 1.3 Pāli -- 1.4 The Theravāda texts -- 2
       Phonology -- 2.1 The sound system -- 2.2 Vowels -- 2.2.1 
       The system of vowels -- 2.2.2 The law of mora -- 2.2.3 
       Word-final vowels -- 2.2.4 Assimilation and dissimilation 
       of vowels -- 2.2.5 Colouring of vowels -- 2.2.6 Changing 
       vowel quantity/quality in foreign words -- 2.2.7 
       Contraction of vowels -- 2.2.8 Anaptyctic vowels -- 2.2.9 
       Prothetic vowels -- 2.2.10 Saṁprasāraṇa -- 2.2.11 Changing
       vowel quantity/quality due to analogy etc. -- 2.2.12 
       Vṛddhi of primary and secondary a, i and u -- 2.2.13 
       Shortening and lengthening of vowels at the boundary of 
       compounds -- 2.3 Consonants -- 2.3.1 The system of 
       consonants -- 2.3.2 Consonantal sound change -- 2.3.3 
       Development of OIA word-initial consonants -- 2.3.4 
       Assimilation of OIA consonant clusters -- 2.3.5 Retention/
       restoration of (OIA) consonant clusters -- 2.3.6 Peculiar 
       assimilation of OIA consonant clusters -- 2.3.7 
       Assimilation of clusters of three consonants -- 2.3.8 
       Assimilation of consonant clusters at the boundaries of 
       compounds -- 2.3.9 Deaspiration of CCh-clusters -- 2.3.10 
       Irregular sound changes -- 2.4 Sandhi -- 2.4.1 Vocalic 
       sandhi -- 2.4.2 Consonantal sandhi -- 2.4.3 Bridging of 
       hiatus -- 2.4.4 Lengthening of -aṁ before an enclitic -- 
       2.4.5 Dropping of initial vowels in sandhi -- 3 Morphology
       -- 3.1 The noun -- 3.2 Paradigms -- 3.2.1 a-inflexion -- 
       3.2.2 ā-inflexion -- 3.2.3 i/u-inflexion -- 3.2.4 ī/ū-
       inflexion -- 3.2.5 Consonantal inflexion -- 3.2.6 
       Inflexion of sakha-lsakha(r)- 'friend' 
505 8  3.2.7 i/(n)-inflexion 
520    The Indo-Aryan languages are spoken by at least 700 
       million people throughout India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, 
       Nepal, Sri Lanka and the Maldive Islands. They have a 
       claim to great antiquity, with the earliest Vedic Sanskrit
       texts dating to the end of the second millennium B.C. With
       texts in Old Indo-Aryan, Middle Indo-Aryan and Modern Indo
       -Aryan, this language family supplies a historical 
       documentation of language change over a longer period than
       any other subgroup of Indo-European. This volume is 
       divided into two main sections dealing with general 
       matters and individual languages. Each chapter on the 
       individual language covers the phonology and grammar 
       (morphology and syntax) of the language and its writing 
       system, and gives the historical background and 
       information concerning the geography of the language and 
       the number of its speakers 
588    Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other
       sources 
590    Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest 
       Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access 
       may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated 
       libraries 
650  0 Indo-Aryan languages.;South Asia -- Languages 
655  4 Electronic books 
700 1  Cardona, George 
776 08 |iPrint version:|aJain, Danesh|tThe Indo-Aryan Languages
       |dFlorence : Taylor & Francis Group,c2003|z9780700711307 
830  0 RoutledgeCurzon Language Family 
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