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作者 Penta, Darrell J
書名 Words with Friends [electronic resource] : Effects of Associative and Semantic Relationships on Subject-Verb Agreement Errors During Sentence Production / Darrell J. Penta
出版項 Ann Arbor : ProQuest Dissertations & Theses, 2017
國際標準書號 9780355227819
book jacket
說明 1 online resource
附註 Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 78-12(E), Section: B
Adviser: Neal J. Pearlmutter
Thesis (Ph.D.)--Northeastern University, 2017
The sentence production system transforms preverbal messages in the mind of a speaker into coherent grammatical utterances. During this process, which unfolds rapidly, the system has to link meaning information from the speaker's message to appropriate lexical and grammatical information from the speaker's memory. It usually does so with fluency and accuracy, but there are some predictable circumstances under which the system is prone to processing failures. Researchers have examined prototypical failures, including subject-verb agreement errors, to learn more about how the system coordinates the flow of information from the mind to the mouth of the speaker under routine conditions
Subject-verb agreement in English refers to the conventional requirement that sentence subjects and verbs agree in grammatical number (e.g., The book is; The books are). Bock and Miller (1991) found that participants tend to make agreement errors when completing subject noun phrase sentence preambles (e.g., The key to the cabinets) where a singular head noun (HN; key) is followed by a plural local noun (LN; cabinets). This is referred to as the mismatch effect
The three experiments in this dissertation used the preamble completion task to investigate influences on mismatch effects from two types of word relationships: association, which refers to the probability that two words will co-occur irrespective of their meaning (e.g., apple-- computer; Penta & Pearlmutter, 2015); and semantic relatedness, which refers to similarity between two words on one or more dimensions of meaning (e.g., apple--orange; Barker, Nicol, & Garrett, 2004; Penta & Pearlmutter, 2015)
Penta and Pearlmutter (2015) found that preambles with associated HN--LN pairs produced larger mismatch effects than preambles with unassociated nouns. Experiments 1--2 examined whether mismatch effects would differ when either the HN, or the LN, or neither noun of a given preamble (e.g., The highway by the new school(s)) was associated with a pair of external "prime" nouns (HN primes: road, interstate; LN primes: campus, university) presented prior vi to the preamble in a sentence (Exp. 1) or at the end of a word list (Exp. 2). In Experiment 1, mismatch effects were smallest when the prime nouns were associates of the HN and largest when they were associates of the LN. This suggests that mismatch effects were modulated by the associative relationship type. Experiment 2 replicated the mismatch effect, but there were no significant differences in mismatch effects as a function of the associative relationship type
Experiment 3 asked whether mismatch effects would be larger for preambles with animacy- matched versus -mismatched HN--LN pairs (e.g., doctor--villager(s); hospital--village(s) vs. doctor--village(s); hospital--villager(s)) when the nouns were minimally related on other semantic dimensions. Ratings data from a large online survey of synonymy were used to minimize the amount of similarity between nouns that was not otherwise attributable to differences in animacy relatedness. Agreement errors were produced more often following animacy-matched nouns, but mismatch effects did not differ significantly between conditions. This is consistent with past results (Penta & Pearlmutter, 2015) showing that increased semantic relatedness for animacy-matched nouns does not predict larger mismatch effects (cf. Barker, Nicol, & Garrett, 2001). The results of Experiment 3 suggest that animacy-based relatedness does not have a strong influence on mismatch effects
School code: 0160
Host Item Dissertation Abstracts International 78-12B(E)
主題 Cognitive psychology
Behavioral psychology
Alt Author Northeastern University. Psychology
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