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作者 Reitherman, Robert K
書名 Earthquakes and Engineers : An International History
出版項 Reston : American Society of Civil Engineers, 2012
©2012
國際標準書號 9780784476352 (electronic bk.)
9780784410714
book jacket
說明 1 online resource (764 pages)
text txt rdacontent
computer c rdamedia
online resource cr rdacarrier
系列 ASCE Press Ser
ASCE Press Ser
附註 Cover -- Contents -- Acknowledgments -- Introduction -- The Definition of "Earthquake Engineering" -- Engineers and Scientists -- Earthquake Engineering and Earthquake-Resistant Construction -- Scope -- Why This Book? -- 1 Approaches to Earthquake Engineering History -- Earthquake Engineering Lore Can Be Fascinating, yet Factual -- The Value of Thinking -- Adding Breadth to Engineering -- Credit Where Credit Is Due -- History as a Way of Thinking about the Future -- Past Ideas and Developments May Still Be Useful Today -- Chronology Vis-à-Vis History -- History as a Sieve -- Potential Sources of Bias -- Why the Emphasis on the Early Years? -- The End of Earthquake Engineering History? -- 2 The Complexities of Earthquake Engineering -- Similarities and Differences with Other Engineering Disciplines -- Risk -- Inelasticity and Nonlinear Behavior -- Dynamics -- 3 Ancient Understanding and Misunderstanding -- Mythological Beliefs: Supernatural Explanations for a Natural Phenomenon -- China -- India -- Japan -- Africa -- New Zealand -- Greece -- Middle East -- Fiji -- Mexico -- North American Indians -- Limited Accomplishments from Ancient Times -- 4 Beginnings of the Modern Scientific Approach: Renaissance to 1850 -- The Development of Geology as a Science -- Galileo, Newton, Hooke: The Beginnings of Physics and Engineering -- Earthquake-Resistant Construction Traditions in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries -- Civil Engineering Development as a Prerequisite to Earthquake Engineering -- 5 The First Seismologists and Earthquake Engineers: The Nineteenth Century -- Robert Mallet, the First Earthquake Engineer -- Japan in the Meiji Period -- The University of Tokyo -- John Milne: The Foremost Early Seismologist -- Ayrton, Perry, Ewing, Knott, Gray, and Mendenhall -- Development of Seismology Outside of Japan
Intensity, an Early Tool of Seismologists and Engineers -- Understanding Faults and the Generation of Earthquakes -- Steel and Reinforced Concrete Join the Traditional Construction Materials -- Moment-Resisting Frames, Braced Frames, Walls, and Diaphragms -- Construction Vocabulary in Place, but Lacking Syntax -- The Lack of Quantitative Measures of Seismic Loads -- Static Analysis of a Dynamic Phenomenon -- The Many Unsolved Problems -- 6 1900-1940: Poised for Further Development but Lacking Essential Analytical Tools -- Earthquake Engineering in Japan -- Developing "Surficial" Seismology -- Research and Practice Initiatives after the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake -- The 1908 Messina-Reggio Earthquake -- 1910 Cartago, Costa Rica, Earthquake: An Early Recognition of the Vulnerability of Unreinforced Masonry -- The 1923 Kanto, Japan, Earthquake: The First Test of Seismically Analyzed and Designed Buildings -- Seismologists Develop the First Estimates of Future Earthquakes: Where, How Big, and How Often -- Magnitude Becomes a Useful Tool for Seismologists and Engineers Alike -- Earthquakes of the 1930s Bring Codes to India, Pakistan, New Zealand, the United States, Chile, and Turkey -- Soil Engineering Develops -- Measurements of Ground Shaking and Attempts by Engineers to Analyze Those Measurements -- Assessing the State of Practice in 1940 -- 7 1940-1960: Major Advances in Understanding and Design -- Laboratory and Field Instrumentation -- Laboratory Testing Apparatus -- Aeronautics, Atomic and Other Bombs, World War II, and the Cold War -- Tsunamis Become a Recognized Research and Risk Reduction Topic -- Dynamics Comes to Soils and Foundation Engineering -- How Severely Can the Ground Shake? -- Ductility Becomes a Prime Goal to Achieve Deformation Capacity, Rather Than Strength Capacity -- The Duet of Ground Motion and Structural Response
The Longevity of the Response Spectrum and Equivalent Lateral Force Methods -- The First World Conference on Earthquake Engineering -- The Internationalization of the Field -- A Breakthrough in the Earth Sciences: Plate Tectonics Theory -- 8 1960-2000: Computers, Instruments, and Apparatus Provide Needed Analysis and Design Tools -- Computers -- Computer Software Development -- The Internet -- Instruments for Measuring the Behavior and Properties of the Ground and Structures -- Simulation of Earthquakes with Shake Tables, Reaction Walls, Forced Vibration, Centrifuges, and Other Apparatus -- 9 1960-2000: The Construction Industry Introduces New Innovations and Challenges -- New Structural Systems -- The Capacity Design Method -- Capacity Spectrum, Pushover, and Displacement-Based Methods -- Improvements in Ductility -- Seismic Isolation -- Damping Devices -- Active Control -- Architectural Trends Challenge the Engineers -- 10 1960-2000: Universities and Research Institutes Provide the Well-Educated Experts for a Growing Field -- The First Earthquake Engineering Professors Teach Themselves a New Subject -- Japan -- United States -- Italy -- Turkey -- India -- New Zealand -- China -- Chile -- Canada -- The Technology of Teaching -- Social Scientists Study Earthquakes -- 11 1960-2000: Special Design Problems Provide Continuing Motivation for Innovation -- Tall Buildings -- Hospitals -- Nonstructural Components Become More Extensive and More Damageable -- Retrofitting to Reduce Existing Risks -- Infrastructure Receives Specialized Attention -- 12 1960-2000: Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering Enters Its Growth Phase -- Liquefaction, Surface Fault Rupture, Landslides -- Effects of Soil on Shaking -- Seismic Zonation -- Signs of a Maturing Discipline -- 13 1960-2000: Probabilistic Approaches -- Earthquake Loss Estimation
Average Loss, Damage Probability Matrices, and Fragility Curves -- Probabilistic Approaches to Ground-Motion Mapping -- Probabilistic Definitions of Safety -- 14 1960-2000: Increasing Funding, Regulations, and Public Expectations Provide Support for a Maturing Field -- Rising Expectations -- Mitigation of Risk Versus Elimination of Risk -- The Spread of Earthquake Construction Regulations -- Disasters Continue to Be the Major Motivators -- Earthquake Engineering Is Freely Imported and Exported -- Growth in the Literature -- Solving Problems Versus Identifying Problems -- A Global Attitude Toward Earthquake Risk -- All the Eggs in One Basket -- In Search of the Seismic Plimsoll Mark -- From Empiricism to Theory -- Epilogue: The Future of Earthquake Engineering History -- Disciplinary Backgrounds of Historical Investigators -- Oral Histories -- Manuscripts, Documents, and Images -- Collections of Artifacts: Construction Samples, Laboratory Apparatus and Specimens, and Instruments -- Museums of Earthquake Engineering -- Unanswered Questions -- Conclusion -- Appendix: Earthquake Engineering History as Delineated by Significant Earthquakes -- References -- Index -- A -- B -- C -- D -- E -- F -- G -- H -- I -- J -- K -- L -- M -- N -- O -- P -- Q -- R -- S -- T -- U -- V -- W -- X -- Y -- Z -- About the Author
Robert Reitherman offers the first comprehensive treatment of the engineering techniques devised around the world to address seismic problems and design structures that resist earthquakes
Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources
Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries
鏈接 Print version: Reitherman, Robert K. Earthquakes and Engineers : An International History Reston : American Society of Civil Engineers,c2012 9780784410714
主題 Earthquake engineering -- History.;Engineering
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