MARC 主機 00000nam  2200409   4500 
001    AAI3432767 
005    20110712090427.5 
008    110712s2010    ||||||||||||||||| ||eng d 
020    9781124377186 
035    (UMI)AAI3432767 
040    UMI|cUMI 
100 1  Relyea, Scott 
245 10 Gazing at the Tibetan Plateau: Sovereignty and Chinese 
       state expansion in the early twentieth century 
300    605 p 
500    Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 72-
       02, Section: A, page:  
500    Adviser: Prasenjit Duara 
502    Thesis (Ph.D.)--The University of Chicago, 2010 
520    This dissertation explores continuities in the expanding 
       Chinese state's endeavour to incorporate its southwest 
       borderlands from the last years of the Qing dynasty into 
       the first decade of the Republic of China, complementing 
       recent scholarship which explores the transformation over 
       the first half of the 20th century of the Qing Empire into
       a Chinese state. Geographically, the text focuses on the 
       Kham region of cultural Tibet, a vast borderland of high 
       mountains and narrow river valleys situated between and 
       coveted in the early twentieth century by both central 
       Tibet and Sichuan Province. By integrating first-hand 
       accounts penned by officials, soldiers, gentry, 
       missionaries, and adventurers, Chinese, Tibetan, and 
       foreign, with an analysis of the policies implemented by 
       diverse military, governmental, and economic actors into a
       narrative of events in Kham from roughly 1904 to the 
       conclusion of the Nine Power Treaty in 1922, this work 
       offers a detailed history of a crucial period in the 
       emergence of the Chinese state while simultaneously 
       presenting a comprehensive picture of the social and 
       political circumstances of a region at the edge of Chinese
       and Tibetan space. This work further analyses the 
       transformation during the early twentieth century of the 
       Sino-Tibetan relationship prompted by the introduction of 
       the globalising norms of sovereignty and territoriality, 
       situating contemporary irredentism in these Tibetan 
       borderlands, as manifest during demonstrations stretching 
       from Lhasa to Kham in early 2008, in the incomplete 
       implementation of these policies during the transition 
       from imperial to state space in a process which I call 
       infrontier imperialism 
520    The military campaigns, bureaucratisation, and myriad 
       ̀civilising' reforms implemented most effectively by the 
       Qing general Zhao Erfeng, known to Tibetans as the 
       'Butcher of Kham', and mirrored less successfully by 
       successive Republican administrations of Sichuan and its 
       borderlands, claimed a long imperial pedigree. Yet the 
       essence and effects of these policies, which comprise the 
       first two stages of infrontier imperialism, were 
       transformed in the early 20th century in the burgeoning 
       global climate of nation-states imbued with sovereignty, 
       the concept which evoked the last stage of infrontier 
       imperialism, the conversion of Kham into a province. 
       Synthesising imperial and modern, these policies, which 
       resonate even today, included the replacement of 
       imperially-invested local chieftains with centrally-
       appointed bureaucratic officials, the exploitation of 
       mineral resources through mining, the migration of farmers
       from Sichuan's Red Basin to agricultural colonies coupled 
       with the formation of experimental farms on the plateau, 
       the initiation of industrial production utilising local 
       products, and the establishment of schools and the 
       inculcation of new social norms to transform and 
       acculturate the Khampas. Bolstered by initial military 
       action and the continued presence on the plateau of 
       Sichuanese soldiers, however tenuous, these myriad 
       policies were at their core intended to weaken the local 
       power of monasteries and thereby the spiritual and rival 
       political influence of Lhasa in Kham 
520    Geographical and political challenges exposed by diverse 
       countervailing forces at the global, imperial or state, 
       and local levels transected these efforts, frustrating the
       incorporation of Kham into the bureaucratic structure of 
       the Chinese state at a time when the region was perceived 
       by both Chengdu and Beijing as a stepping stone toward 
       encompassing the whole of Tibet. A stark contrast existed 
       between the late Qing and early Republican governments' 
       real exercise of authority on the plateau at the local 
       level and the largely performative aspects of that 
       authority at the imperial or state level deployed to 
       legitimate claims to sovereignty over Kham and Tibet to 
       the global community. The emergence of nation-states and 
       the accompanying tenets of sovereignty in the first 
       decades of the 20th century had transformed long-standing 
       policies of bureaucratisation and acculturation once 
       invoked by expanding Chinese empires into tools for 
       absorbing these same borderlands into the nascent Chinese 
       state. Yet this dissertation argues that the persistent 
       inability of the Qing and Republican governments to exert 
       effective control over the diverse polities comprising 
       Kham during these crucial decades of state formation, 
       coupled with the incomplete implementation of the 
       bureaucratic and transformative endeavours noted above, 
       exacerbated an underlying tension between the political 
       and the spiritual in the competition for authority in Kham
       among local leaders, Lhasa, Chengdu, and Beijing which 
       persists even to this day 
590    School code: 0330 
650  4 History, Asia, Australia and Oceania 
650  4 Asian Studies 
650  4 Political Science, International Relations 
690    0332 
690    0342 
690    0601 
710 2  The University of Chicago.|bHistory 
773 0  |tDissertation Abstracts International|g72-02A 
856 40 |u