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作者 Posner, Jerome B
書名 Plum and Posner's Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma
出版項 Cary : Oxford University Press USA - OSO, 2007
©2007
國際標準書號 9780198043362 (electronic bk.)
9780195321319
book jacket
版本 4th ed
說明 1 online resource (416 pages)
text txt rdacontent
computer c rdamedia
online resource cr rdacarrier
系列 Contemporary Neurology Ser. ; v.71
Contemporary Neurology Ser
附註 Intro -- CONTENTS -- 1. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF COMA -- ALTERED STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS -- DEFINITIONS -- Consciousness -- Acutely Altered States of Consciousness -- Subacute or Chronic Alterations of Consciousness -- APPROACH TO THE DIAGNOSIS OF THE COMATOSE PATIENT -- PHYSIOLOGY AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF CONSCIOUSNESS AND COMA -- The Ascending Arousal System -- Behavioral State Switching -- Relationship of Coma to Sleep -- The Cerebral Hemispheres and Conscious Behavior -- Structural Lesions That Cause Altered Consciousness in Humans -- 2. EXAMINATION OF THE COMATOSE PATIENT -- OVERVIEW -- HISTORY -- GENERAL PHYSICAL EXAMINATION -- LEVEL OF CONSCIOUSNESS -- ABC: AIRWAY, BREATHING, CIRCULATION -- Circulation -- Respiration -- PUPILLARY RESPONSES -- Examine the Pupils and Their Responses -- Pathophysiology of Pupillary Responses: Peripheral Anatomy of the Pupillomotor System -- Pharmacology of the Peripheral Pupillomotor System -- Localizing Value of Abnormal Pupillary Responses in Patients in Coma -- Metabolic and Pharmacologic Causes of Abnormal Pupillary Response -- OCULOMOTOR RESPONSES -- Functional Anatomy of the Peripheral Oculomotor System -- Functional Anatomy of the Central Oculomotor System -- The Ocular Motor Examination -- Interpretation of Abnormal Ocular Movements -- MOTOR RESPONSES -- Motor Tone -- Motor Reflexes -- Motor Responses -- FALSE LOCALIZING SIGNS IN PATIENTS WITH METABOLIC COMA -- Respiratory Responses -- Pupillary Responses -- Ocular Motor Responses -- Motor Responses -- MAJOR LABORATORY DIAGNOSTIC AIDS -- Blood and Urine Testing -- Computed Tomography Imaging and Angiography -- Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Angiography -- Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy -- Neurosonography -- Lumbar Puncture -- Electroencephalography and Evoked Potentials -- 3. STRUCTURAL CAUSES OF STUPOR AND COMA
COMPRESSIVE LESIONS AS A CAUSE OF COMA -- COMPRESSIVE LESIONS MAY DIRECTLY DISTORT THE AROUSAL SYSTEM -- Compression at Different Levels of the Central Nervous System Presents in Distinct Ways -- The Role of Increased Intracranial Pressure in Coma -- The Role of Vascular Factors and Cerebral Edema in Mass Lesions -- HERNIATION SYNDROMES: INTRACRANIAL SHIFTS IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF COMA -- Anatomy of the Intracranial Compartments -- Patterns of Brain Shifts That Contribute to Coma -- Clinical Findings in Uncal Herniation Syndrome -- Clinical Findings in Central Herniation Syndrome -- Clinical Findings in Dorsal Midbrain Syndrome -- Safety of Lumbar Puncture in Comatose Patients -- False Localizing Signs in the Diagnosis of Structural Coma -- DESTRUCTIVE LESIONS AS A CAUSE OF COMA -- DIFFUSE, BILATERAL CORTICAL DESTRUCTION -- DESTRUCTIVE DISEASE OF THE DIENCEPHALON -- DESTRUCTIVE LESIONS OF THE BRAINSTEM -- 4. SPECIFIC CAUSES OF STRUCTURAL COMA -- INTRODUCTION -- SUPRATENTORIAL COMPRESSIVE LESIONS -- EPIDURAL, DURAL, AND SUBDURAL MASSES -- Epidural Hematoma -- Subdural Hematoma -- Epidural Abscess/Empyema -- Dural and Subdural Tumors -- SUBARACHNOID LESIONS -- Subarachnoid Hemorrhage -- Subarachnoid Tumors -- Subarachnoid Infection -- INTRACEREBRAL MASSES -- Intracerebral Hemorrhage -- Intracerebral Tumors -- Brain Abscess and Granuloma -- INFRATENTORIAL COMPRESSIVE LESIONS -- EPIDURAL AND DURAL MASSES -- Epidural Hematoma -- Epidural Abscess -- Dural and Epidural Tumors -- SUBDURAL POSTERIOR FOSSA COMPRESSIVE LESIONS -- Subdural Empyema -- Subdural Tumors -- SUBARACHNOID POSTERIOR FOSSA LESIONS -- INTRAPARENCHYMAL POSTERIOR FOSSA MASS LESIONS -- Cerebellar Hemorrhage -- Cerebellar Infarction -- Cerebellar Abscess -- Cerebellar Tumor -- Pontine Hemorrhage -- SUPRATENTORIAL DESTRUCTIVE LESIONS CAUSING COMA
VASCULAR CAUSES OF SUPRATENTORIAL DESTRUCTIVE LESIONS -- Carotid Ischemic Lesions -- Distal Basilar Occlusion -- Venous Sinus Thrombosis -- Vasculitis -- INFECTIONS AND INFLAMMATORY CAUSES OF SUPRATENTORIAL DESTRUCTIVE LESIONS -- Viral Encephalitis -- Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis -- CONCUSSION AND OTHER TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURIES -- Mechanism of Brain Injury During Closed Head Trauma -- Mechanism of Loss of Consciousness in Concussion -- Delayed Encephalopathy After Head Injury -- INFRATENTORIAL DESTRUCTIVE LESIONS -- BRAINSTEM VASCULAR DESTRUCTIVE DISORDERS -- Brainstem Hemorrhage -- Basilar Migraine -- Posterior Reversible Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome -- INFRATENTORIAL INFLAMMATORY DISORDERS -- INFRATENTORIAL TUMORS -- CENTRAL PONTINE MYELINOLYSIS -- 5. MULTIFOCAL, DIFFUSE, AND METABOLIC BRAIN DISEASES CAUSING DELIRIUM, STUPOR, OR COMA -- CLINICAL SIGNS OF METABOLIC ENCEPHALOPATHY -- CONSCIOUSNESS: CLINICAL ASPECTS -- Tests of Mental Status -- Pathogenesis of the Mental Changes -- RESPIRATION -- Neurologic Respiratory Changes Accompanying Metabolic Encephalopathy -- Acid-Base Changes Accompanying Hyperventilation During Metabolic Encephalopathy -- Acid-Base Changes Accompanying Hypoventilation During Metabolic Encephalopathy -- PUPILS -- OCULAR MOTILITY -- MOTOR ACTIVITY -- ''Nonspecific'' Motor Abnormalities -- Motor Abnormalities Characteristic of Metabolic Coma -- DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS -- Distinction Between Metabolic and Psychogenic Unresponsiveness -- Distinction Between Coma of Metabolic and Structural Origin -- ASPECTS OF CEREBRAL METABOLISM PERTINENT TO COMA -- CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW -- GLUCOSE METABOLISM -- Hyperglycemia -- Hypoglycemia -- ANESTHESIA -- MECHANISMS OF IRREVERSIBLE ANOXIC-ISCHEMIC BRAIN DAMAGE -- Global Ischemia -- Focal Ischemia -- Hypoxia -- EVALUATION OF NEUROTRANSMITTER CHANGES IN METABOLIC COMA -- Acetylcholine
Dopamine -- Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid -- Serotonin -- Histamine -- Glutamate -- Norepinephrine -- SPECIFIC CAUSES OF METABOLIC COMA -- ISCHEMIA AND HYPOXIA -- Acute, Diffuse (or Global) Hypoxia or Ischemia -- Intermittent or Sustained Hypoxia -- Sequelae of Hypoxia -- DISORDERS OF GLUCOSE OR COFACTOR AVAILABILITY -- Hypoglycemia -- Hyperglycemia -- Cofactor Deficiency -- DISEASES OF ORGAN SYSTEMS OTHER THAN BRAIN -- Liver Disease -- Renal Disease -- Pulmonary Disease -- Pancreatic Encephalopathy -- Diabetes Mellitus -- Adrenal Disorders -- Thyroid Disorders -- Pituitary Disorders -- Cancer -- EXOGENOUS INTOXICATIONS -- Sedative and Psychotropic Drugs -- Intoxication With Other Common Medications -- Ethanol Intoxication -- Intoxication With Drugs of Abuse -- Intoxication With Drugs Causing Metabolic Acidosis -- ABNORMALITIES OF IONIC OR ACID-BASE ENVIRONMENT OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM -- Hypo-osmolar States -- Hyperosmolar States -- Calcium -- Other Electrolytes -- Disorders of Systemic Acid-Base Balance -- DISORDERS OF THERMOREGULATION -- Hypothermia -- Hyperthermia -- INFECTIOUS DISORDERS OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM: BACTERIAL -- Acute Bacterial Leptomeningitis -- Chronic Bacterial Meningitis -- INFECTIOUS DISORDERS OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM: VIRAL -- Overview of Viral Encephalitis -- Acute Viral Encephalitis -- Acute Toxic Encephalopathy During Viral Encephalitis -- Parainfectious Encephalitis (Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis) -- Cerebral Biopsy for Diagnosis of Encephalitis -- CEREBRAL VASCULITIS AND OTHER VASCULOPATHIES -- Granulomatous Central Nervous System Angiitis -- Systemic Lupus Erythematosus -- Subacute Diencephalic Angioencephalopathy -- Varicella-Zoster Vasculitis -- Behçet's Syndrome -- Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy With Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy -- MISCELLANEOUS NEURONAL AND GLIAL DISORDERS
Prion Diseases -- Adrenoleukodystrophy (Schilder's Disease) -- Marchiafava-Bignami Disease -- Gliomatosis Cerebri -- Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy -- Epilepsy -- Mixed Metabolic Encephalopathy -- ACUTE DELIRIOUS STATES -- Drug Withdrawal Delirium (Delirium Tremens) -- Postoperative Delirium -- Intensive Care Unit Delirium -- Drug-Induced Delirium -- 6. PSYCHOGENIC UNRESPONSIVENESS -- CONVERSION REACTIONS -- CATATONIA -- PSYCHOGENIC SEIZURES -- CEREBELLAR COGNITIVE AFFECTIVE SYNDROME -- ''AMYTAL INTERVIEW'' -- 7. APPROACH TO MANAGEMENT OF THE UNCONSCIOUS PATIENT -- A CLINICAL REGIMEN FOR DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT -- PRINCIPLES OF EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT -- Ensure Oxygenation, Airway, and Ventilation -- Maintain the Circulation -- Measure the Glucose -- Lower the Intracranial Pressure -- Stop Seizures -- Treat Infection -- Restore Acid-Base Balance -- Adjust Body Temperature -- Administer Specific Antidotes -- Control Agitation -- Protect the Eyes -- EXAMINATION OF THE PATIENT -- Verbal Responses -- Respiratory Pattern -- Eye Opening -- Pupillary Reactions -- Spontaneous Eye Movement -- Oculocephalic Responses -- Caloric Vestibulo-Ocular Responses -- Corneal Responses -- Motor Responses -- Tendon Reflexes -- Skeletal Muscle Tone -- GUIDES TO SPECIFIC MANAGEMENT -- Supratentorial Mass Lesions -- Infratentorial Mass Lesions -- Metabolic Encephalopathy -- Psychogenic Unresponsiveness -- A FINAL WORD -- 8. BRAIN DEATH -- DETERMINATION OF BRAIN DEATH -- CLINICAL SIGNS OF BRAIN DEATH -- Brainstem Function -- Confirmatory Laboratory Tests and Diagnosis -- Diagnosis of Brain Death in Profound Anesthesia or Coma of Undetermined Etiology -- Pitfalls in the Diagnosis of Brain Death -- 9. PROGNOSIS IN COMA AND RELATED DISORDERS OF CONSCIOUSNESS, MECHANISMS UNDERLYING OUTCOMES, AND ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS -- INTRODUCTION -- PROGNOSIS IN COMA
PROGNOSIS BY DISEASE STATE
After nearly 25 years, it is finally here: the Fourth Edition of the classic text Plum and Posner's Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma. Clifford B. Saper, Chair of Neurology at Harvard Medical School, and Nicholas D. Schiff of Weill Medical College in NY join the original authors to thoroughly update this seminal text with over 90% new material.The goal of the new edition is to provide a clinically slanted volume that will help the reader understand and diagnose severe brain dysfunction both as it exists and as it evolves in the seriously ill. The book remains a treatise on pathophysiology because recent imaging, electrophysiologic, and biochemical technologies (discussed in the book) are by themselves insufficient substitutes for the physician's educated mind in the diagnosis and management of patients
Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources
Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries
鏈接 Print version: Posner, Jerome B. Plum and Posner's Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma Cary : Oxford University Press USA - OSO,c2007 9780195321319
主題 Coma -- Diagnosis.;Stupor -- Diagnosis
Electronic books
Alt Author Saper, Clifford B
Schiff, Nicholas
Plum, Fred
Schiff, Nicholas
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