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作者 Robertson, David Douglas
書名 Kamloops Chinuk Wawa, Chinuk pipa, and the vitality of pidgins [electronic resource]
國際標準書號 9780499284198 (ebk.)
book jacket
說明 1 online resource
附註 Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 75-07(E), Section: A
Adviser: Ewa Czaykowska-Higgins
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Victoria (Canada), 2012
This dissertation presents the first full grammatical description of unprompted (spontaneous) speech in pidgin Chinook Jargon [synonyms Chinuk Wawa, Chinook]. The data come from a dialect I term 'Kamloops Chinuk Wawa', used in southern interior British Columbia circa 1900. I also present the first historical study and structural analysis of the shorthand-based 'Chinuk pipa' alphabet in which Kamloops Chinuk Wawa was written, primarily by Salish people. This study is made possible by the discovery of several hundred such texts, which I have transliterated and analyzed. The Basic Linguistic Theory-inspired (cf. Dixon 2010a,b) framework used here interprets Kamloops Chinuk Wawa as surprisingly ramified in morphological and syntactic structure, a finding in line with recent studies reexamining the status of pidgins by Bakker (e.g. 2003a,b, forthcoming) among others. Among the major findings: an unusually successful pidgin literacy including a widely circulated newspaper Kamloops Wawa, and language planning by the missionary J.M.R. Le Jeune, O.M.I. He planned both for the use of Kamloops Chinuk Wawa and this alphabet, and for their pre-planned replacement by English. Additional sociolinguistic factors determining how Chinuk pipa was written included Salish preferences for learning to write by whole-word units (rather than letter by letter), and toward informal intra-community teaching of this first group literacy. In addition to compounding and conversion of lexical roots, Kamloops Chinuk Wawa morphology exploited three types of preposed grammatical morphemes---affixes, clitics, and particles. Virtually all are homonymous with and grammaticalized from demonstrably lexical morphs. Newly identified categories include 'out-of-control' transitivity marking and discourse markers including 'admirative' and 'inferred'. Contrary to previous claims about Chinook Jargon (cf. Vrzic 1999), no overt passive voice exists in Kamloops Chinuk Wawa (nor probably in pan-Chinook Jargon), but a previously unknown 'passivization strategy' of implied agent demotion is brought to light. A realis-irrealis modality distinction is reflected at several scopal levels: phrase, clause and sentence. Functional differences are observed between irrealis clauses before and after main clauses. Polar questions are restricted to subordinate clauses, while alternative questions are formed by simple juxtaposition of irrealis clauses. Main-clause interrogatives are limited to content-question forms, optionally with irrealis marking. Positive imperatives are normally signaled by a mood particle on a realis clause, negative ones by a negative particle. Aspect is marked in a three-part ingressive-imperfectivecompletive system, with a marginal fourth 'conative'. One negative operator has characteristically clausal, and another phrasal, scope. One copula is newly attested. Degree marking is largely confined to 'predicative' adjectives (copula complements). Several novel features of pronoun usage possibly reflect Salish L1 grammatical habits: a consistent animacy distinction occurs in third-person pronouns, where pan-Chinook Jargon iaka (animate singular) and klaska (animate plural) contrast with a null (O ) inanimate object/patient; this null and iaka are non-specified for number; in intransitives, double exponence (repetition) of pronominal subjects is common; and pan-Chinook Jargon klaksta (originally 'who?') and klaska (originally 'they') vary freely with each other. Certain etymologically content-question forms are used also as determiners. Kamloops Chinuk Wawa's numeral system is unusually regular and small for a pidgin; numerals are also used ordinally in a distinctly Chinook Jargon type of personal name. There is a null allomorph of the preposition kopa. This preposition has additionally a realis complementizer function (with nominalized predicates) distinct from irrealis pus (with verbal ones). Conjunction pi also has a function in a syntactic focus-increasing and -reducing system
School code: 0244
Host Item Dissertation Abstracts International 75-07A(E)
主題 Linguistics
Native American studies
Alt Author University of Victoria (Canada). Linguistics
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