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作者 Leeds, Jack Peter
書名 Ego-defensive and ego-promotional behavior in socially desirable responding and self-assessed job performance
說明 278 p
附註 Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 67-12, Section: B, page: 7414
Adviser: Richard L. Griffith
Thesis (Ph.D.)--Florida Institute of Technology, 2007
Whether conscious or unconscious, the need to influence how we are perceived by others is a central theme in mans' evolution and is evidenced across contexts from the need to defend against enemies to the desire to attract mates to the tendency to respond overly favorably on measures of non-cognitive ability. Much research has been devoted to the study of socially desirable responding (SDR) on non-cognitive measures of job related characteristics (Meehl & Hathaway, 1946; Crowne and Marlowe, 1960; Paulhus, 1991; Ones, Viswesveran and Reiss, 1996). However, the egoistic component (ego-promotional and ego-protective) of SDR has not been given enough attention in the literature. Study 1 investigated ego-promotional behavior (ascribing the self with ego enhancing attributions) and ego-defensive behavior (denying ones possession of ego threatening attributions) as measured by a web based, 72-item bio data test with a 7-item Lie Scale, a 20-item experimental egoistic responding (SDR) scale, and a 180 degree self-supervisor performance appraisal measuring competence on 27 dimensions. The sample consisted of 741 incumbent US Army and Navy civilian employees. Study 1 examined the egoistic component in terms of how it manifests on the SDR/Lie scale as SDR and on the self-supervisor assessed job performance appraisal (operationalized as self-supervisor appraisal disparity). It was hypothesized that egoistic behavior is a cross-contextual phenomenon, expressed as SDR in non-cognitive measures and as self-serving bias in self-supervisor performance appraisals. Results show that respondents engaged in more ego promotional SDR than ego defensive SDR and that those high or low on egoistic responding had similar levels of self-supervisor performance appraisal disparity. That is, over (or under) promoting the self on the egoistic SDR scale context did not generalize to the performance appraisal context although several performance dimensions did yield significant correlations. However, the Lie scale showed a significant relationship to self-supervisor disparity. Egoistic SDR scale scores were more related to self than supervisor-assessed performance appraisal. Finally, the interacting pattern of relationships between self and supervisor assessed performance and the egoistic SDR scales suggests (1) that ego promotion is related to high supervisor ratings until performance overestimation reverses that relationship and (2) that ego defensiveness relates to low supervisor ratings until performance overestimation reverses this relationship. In Study 2, a construct validation of the 20-item SDR scale was attempted. A sample of 71 students was led to believe that they were applying for an actual job and were asked to complete both the 72-item biodata test and the 20-item SDR scale. The students were then informed of the deception and asked to complete the measures a second time under an honest condition. The difference between a student's scores on the 7 scales of the biodata test on the first administration was subtracted from their scores on the second administration to produce a difference score. These difference scores were correlated with the 20-item SDR measure and the CLIMB Lie scale. Only the CLIMB Lie Scale correlated significantly to one of the seven the biodata scale difference score (Work Motivation). The failure of the promotional and defensive scales to detect actual faking limits the inferences we can draw with their regard to SDR rather than to faking specifically. Moreover, the failure of the SDR/Lie scales to detect observed faking behavior calls into question the validity of SDR instruments and begs the question as to what such scales are really measuring
School code: 0473
DDC
Host Item Dissertation Abstracts International 67-12B
主題 Psychology, Industrial
0624
Alt Author Florida Institute of Technology
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