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作者 van der Ree, Rodney
書名 Handbook of Road Ecology
出版項 Hoboken : John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, 2015
©2015
國際標準書號 9781118568149 (electronic bk.)
9781118568170
book jacket
版本 1st ed
說明 1 online resource (551 pages)
text txt rdacontent
computer c rdamedia
online resource cr rdacarrier
附註 Intro -- Title Page -- Copyright Page -- Contents -- Notes on contributors -- Foreword -- Preface -- Acknowledgements -- About the companion website -- Chapter 1 The Ecological Effects of Linear Infrastructure and Traffic: Challenges and Opportunities of Rapid Global Growth -- INTRODUCTION -- LESSONS -- 1.1 Global road length, number of vehicles and rate of per capita travel are high and predicted to increase significantly over the next few decades -- 1.2 The 'road-effect zone' is a useful conceptual framework to quantify the negative ecological and environmental impacts of roads and traffic -- 1.3 The effects of roads and traffic on wildlife are numerous, varied and typically deleterious -- 1.4 The density and configuration of road networks are important considerations in road planning -- 1.5 The costs to society of wildlife-vehicle collisions can be high -- 1.6 The strategies of avoidance, minimisation, mitigation and offsetting are increasingly being adopted around the world - but it must be recognised that some impacts are unavoidable and unmitigable -- 1.7 Road ecology is an applied science which underpins the quantification and mitigation of road impacts -- CONCLUSIONS -- FURTHER READING -- REFERENCES -- Chapter 2 Bad Roads, Good Roads -- INTRODUCTION -- LESSONS -- 2.1 Land-use pressures will rise sharply this century and will be strongly influenced by roads -- 2.2 Agricultural yield increases alone will not spare nature - land‐use zoning is crucial too -- 2.3 Roads in pristine areas are environmentally dangerous - the first cut is critical -- 2.4 Paved highways have especially large-scale impacts -- 2.5 Roads can be environmentally beneficial in certain contexts -- 2.6 Roads are amenable to policy modification -- 2.7 A recently proposed global road-mapping scheme could serve as a potential model for these efforts -- CONCLUSIONS
FURTHER READING -- REFERENCES -- Chapter 3 Why keep areas road-free? The importance of roadless areas -- INTRODUCTION -- LESSONS -- 3.1 Roadless areas contribute significantly to the preservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services -- 3.2 Planning of new transport routes should identify existing roadless areas and avoid them -- 3.3 Subsequent ('contagious') development effects of road construction should be avoided in roadless and low-traffic areas -- 3.4 Unnecessary and ecologically damaging roads should be reclaimed to enlarge roadless areas and restore landscape-level processes -- 3.5 It is crucial to systematically evaluate the need for and location of proposed roads and implement the principle of 'no-net-loss' of unfragmented lands when there is no alternative -- CONCLUSIONS -- ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS -- FURTHER READING -- REFERENCES -- Chapter 4 Incorporating biodiversity issues into road design: The road agency perspective -- INTRODUCTION -- LESSONS -- 4.1 Road planning, design, construction and operation are complex challenges that attempt to balance environmental, economic and social demands -- 4.2 Road projects have a typical series of stages that begins with strategic planning and ends with operation -- 4.3 Appropriate ecological input into a road project should occur in every stage -- 4.4 Standards and guidelines are critical to ensure a consistent and high-quality approach to roads and road mitigation -- CONCLUSIONS -- Chapter 5 Improving environmental impact assessment and road planning at the landscape scale -- INTRODUCTION -- LESSONS -- 5.1 EIAs of road projects are generally poor -- 5.2 Landscape-scale effects of road networks are neglected in EIAs -- 5.3 There is a lack of knowledge of thresholds in the cumulative effects of landscape fragmentation and habitat loss on the viability of wildlife populations
5.4 Wildlife populations may have long response times to increases in landscape fragmentation ('extinction debt') -- 5.5 There are large uncertainties about many potential ecological effects of roads -- they need explicit consideration in EIA, and decision-makers should more rigorously apply the precautionary principle -- 5.6 Landscape fragmentation should be monitored because it is a threat to biodiversity and a relevant pressure indicator -- 5.7 Maintaining ecological corridor networks is less costly than paying for their restoration at a later date -- 5.8 Limits to control landscape fragmentation are needed -- 5.9 Caring about the quality of the entire landscape is essential, not just protected areas and wildlife corridors -- CONCLUSIONS -- FURTHER READING -- REFERENCES -- Chapter 6 What transportation agencies need in environmental impact assessments and other reports to minimise ecological impacts -- INTRODUCTION -- LESSONS -- 6.1 The consultant must have a thorough understanding of the scope for the EIA -- 6.2 The EIA should include accurate and expert technical advice -- 6.3 Adequate methods are used to conduct EIA surveys and analyse the results -- 6.4 The EIA should be easy to read and comprehend -- 6.5 The EIA must adequately assess the potential impacts of the project or action on biodiversity -- 6.6 The EIA should follow the mitigation hierarchy (i.e. avoid, minimise, mitigate and lastly offset) and recommend realistic measures to protect the environment -- CONCLUSIONS -- ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS -- FURTHER READING -- REFERENCES -- Chapter 7 Principles underpinning biodiversity offsets and guidance on their use -- INTRODUCTION -- LESSONS -- 7.1 Adhering to the mitigation hierarchy is essential for maintaining the legitimacy of offsets and compensatory measures
7.2 Early identification and understanding the limits of what can be offset is an essential step in offset mitigation planning -- 7.3 The concept of offsets requires an understanding of what is required to achieve 'no net loss' -- 7.4 Uncertainties and risks that might affect delivery of 'no net loss' are foreseeable and should be anticipated and accounted for in planning for offsets -- 7.5 Effective management and governance is imperative for achieving 'no net loss' -- CONCLUSIONS -- ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS -- FURTHER READING -- REFERENCES -- Chapter 8 Construction of roads and wildlife mitigation measures: Pitfalls and opportunities -- INTRODUCTION -- LESSONS -- 8.1 Pre-construction planning and dedicated environmental staff are essential to identify opportunities and avoid mistakes -- 8.2 A pre-construction review of road and mitigation designs is important to assess constructability and identify opportunities for improvement -- 8.3 Clearing of vegetation must be carefully planned and strictly monitored -- 8.4 Early installation and regular maintenance of fauna exclusion fences can help to reduce wildlife mortality during construction -- 8.5 Early construction of fauna mitigation measures can minimise impacts and allow adaptation of designs if required -- 8.6 Effectiveness of mitigation can be reduced if the quality of the finishing is inadequate -- 8.7 Appropriate education targeted at the needs of different construction personnel can help to achieve the best ecological outcomes -- CONCLUSIONS -- Chapter 9 Ensuring the completed road project is designed, built and operated as intended -- INTRODUCTION -- LESSONS -- 9.1 Road planning, design, construction and operation is a truly collaborative process
9.2 Engage ecologists and biologists with expertise on the ecosystems or species of concern at the earliest planning stages to ensure the best outcome for biodiversity -- 9.3 Large-scale or expensive mitigation measures need to be identified during the route selection process so that costs and benefits can be properly evaluated -- 9.4 Clearly define the ecological goals of the mitigation -- 9.5 Mitigation measures need to be identified during the planning or early design stages to prevent unnecessary costs -- 9.6 Misinterpretation of concepts and designs can (and often do) occur at each stage in a road project -- 9.7 Ensure that species or ecosystem experts continue to be included in each design and construction stage of a project to ensure the effectiveness of mitigation measures -- CONCLUSIONS -- ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS -- Chapter 10 Good science and experimentation are needed in road ecology -- INTRODUCTION -- LESSONS -- 10.1 Rigorous science is essential to assess, avoid, minimise, mitigate and offset the impacts of roads and traffic -- 10.2 Effective monitoring is an essential tool in road ecology -- 10.3 Getting the question right is a critical first step in research and monitoring -- 10.4 Study design matters -- 10.5 Monitoring should be seen as an integral and valuable part of road projects -- 10.6 Experiments investigating road impacts and mitigation effectiveness are an important way forward in road ecology and better management of roads -- 10.7 Research and monitoring should be strategically planned and coordinated across jurisdictional boundaries -- 10.8 The data and findings need to be accessible to relevant user groups e.g. scientists, planners and decision‐makers, ideally also the public -- CONCLUSIONS -- ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS -- FURTHER READING -- REFERENCES -- Chapter 11 Field methods to evaluate the impacts of roads on wildlife -- INTRODUCTION
LESSONS
Winner of the IENE Project Award 2016. This authoritative volume brings together some of the world's leading researchers, academics, practitioners and transportation agency personnel to present the current status of the ecological sustainability of the linear infrastructure - primarily road, rail and utility easements - that dissect and fragment landscapes globally. It outlines the potential impacts, demonstrates how this infrastructure is being improved, and how broad ecological principles are applied to mitigate the impact of road networks on wildlife. Research and monitoring is an important aspect of road ecology, encompassing all phases of a transportation project. This book covers research and monitoring to span the entire project continuum - starting with planning and design, through construction and into maintenance and management. It focuses on impacts and solutions for species groups and specific regions, with particular emphasis on the unique challenges facing Asia, South America and Africa. Other key features: Contributions from authors originating from over 25 countries, including from all continents Each chapter summarizes important lessons, and includes lists of further reading and thoroughly up to date references Highlights principles that address key points relevant to all phases in all road projects Explains best-practices based on a number of successful international case studies Chapters are "stand-alone", but they also build upon and complement each other; extensive cross-referencing directs the reader to relevant material elsewhere in the book Handbook of Road Ecology offers a comprehensive summary of approximately 30 years of global efforts to quantify the impacts of roads and traffic and implement effective mitigation. As such, it is essential reading for those involved in the planning, design, assessment and construction
of new roads; the management and maintenance of existing roads; and the modifying or retrofitting of existing roads and problem locations. This handbook is an accessible resource for both developed and developing countries, including government transportation agencies, Government environmental/conservation agencies, NGOs, and road funding and donor organisations
Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources
Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries
鏈接 Print version: van der Ree, Rodney Handbook of Road Ecology Hoboken : John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated,c2015 9781118568170
主題 Roadside ecology.;Roads -- Design and construction -- Environmental aspects.;Ecological assessment (Biology);Wildlife conservation
Electronic books
Alt Author Smith, Daniel J
Grilo, Clara
Smith, Daniel
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