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作者 Zhou, Dazhuang
書名 CR-39 Plastic Nuclear Track Detectors in Physics Research
出版項 Hauppauge : Nova Science Publishers, Incorporated, 2012
©2012
國際標準書號 9781628086607 (electronic bk.)
9781613244876
book jacket
說明 1 online resource (214 pages)
text txt rdacontent
computer c rdamedia
online resource cr rdacarrier
系列 Series: Physics Research and Technology
Series: Physics Research and Technology
附註 Intro -- CR-39 PLASTIC NUCLEAR TRACK DETECTORS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH -- Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data -- Contents -- Preface -- CR-39 Plastic Nuclear Track Detectors in Physics Research -- List of Figures -- List of Tables -- Introduction -- Chapter 1: Methods of LET Spectrum and Charge Spectrum Using CR-39 detectors -- 1.1. CR-39 Plastic Nuclear Track Detectors (PNTDs) -- 1.1.1. Nuclear Track Detectors -- 1.1.2. Energy Loss Models of Charged Particles -- 1.1.2.1. Ionisation and Excitation -- 1.1.2.2. Bremsstrahlung and Cherenkov Radiation -- 1.1.2.3. Nuclear Interactions -- 1.1.3. Energy Loss Models for Track Formation -- 1.1.3.1. The Total Ionization Energy Model -- 1.1.3.2. The Primary Ionization Model -- 1.1.3.3. The Restricted Energy Loss (REL) Model -- 1.1.4. Track Formation in Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors -- 1.1.5. Physical Principles of Radiation Measurement Using CR-39 Detectors -- 1.1.5.1. Operation Principles of CR-39 Detectors -- 1.1.5.2. Two Different approaches to Detect Charged Particles -- 1.1.6. Procedures of Radiation Research Using CR-39 Detectors -- 1.1.7. Track Etching Mechanisms and Geometry -- 1.1.7.1. Preferential Etching along the Particle Passage -- 1.1.7.2. Etching Mechanisms and Geometry -- A. Normal Incidence -- B. Incidence at an Angle -- C. Cone pairs -- 1.1.7.3. Several Useful Relationships -- A. Etch Rate Ratio and Cone Angle -- B. Etch Rate Ratio and Ellipse Major and Minor Axes -- 1.1.8. Events Recognition and Data Acquisition by Manual Scan -- 1.2. LET Spectrum Method Using CR-39 Detectors -- 1.2.1. Quantifying the Radiation Hazard -- 1.2.2. LET Spectrum Generation -- 1.2.2.1. Differential and Integral LET Spectrum -- 1.2.2.2. Concept of (cut and Its Determination -- 1.2.2.3. Dose and Dose Equivalent -- 1.2.3. LET Calibration for CR-39 Detectors
1.2.3.1. Method and Approach of LET Calibration for CR-39 Detectors -- 1.2.3.2. LET Calibration for CR-39 Detectors in Different Oxygen Environments -- 1.2.3.3. Results of CR-39 LET Calibration -- 1.2.3.4. Comparison of LET Calibrations for CR-39 PNTDs -- 1.3. Charge Spectrum Method Using CR-39 Detectors -- 1.3.1. Principles of Charge Spectrum Method -- 1.3.1.1. Particle Identification by Etch Rate and Range -- 1.3.1.2. Particle Identification by Etch Rate Gradient -- 1.3.3. Data Scan and Acquisition -- 1.4. Sensitivity Fading of CR-39 Detectors and Correction -- 1.4.1. Sensitivity Fading of CR-39 Detectors with Long-Term Exposure -- 1.4.2. Experimental Method to Determine Fading Correction Formula -- 1.4.2.1. Exposures of CR-39 Detectors in Space -- 1.4.2.2. Data Scan and Analysis -- 1.4.2.3. Sensitivity Fading of CR-39 Detectors during Long Time Exposures -- 1.4.2.4. Correction method for the Fading of CR-39 Sensitivity -- 1.4.2.5. Charge Identification for the Selected Test GCR Events -- 1.4.3. Fading Correction Formula and Application -- 1.4.3.1. Fading Correction Formula -- 1.4.3.2. Comparison of Radiation Results Measured with CR-39 PNTDs and TEPC -- 1.4.4. Conclusion -- Chapter 2: Cosmic Rays in Space -- Chapter 2: Cosmic Rays in Space and in the Earth's Atmosphere -- 2.1. Cosmic Rays - Discovery and Nature -- 2.2. The Energy Spectra and Charge Spectra -- 2.3. Interaction of Primary Cosmic Ray Nuclei with the Atmosphere -- 2.4. Cosmic Rays in the Atmosphere -- 2.5. Radiobiological Significance of Cosmic Rays -- Chapter 3: Radiation Measured with CR-39 Detectors at Aviation Altitudes -- 3.1. Exposures of CR-39 Detectors at Aviation Altitudes -- 3.1.1. Introduction -- 3.1.2. Stack of CR-39 Detectors -- 3.1.3. Exposures of CR-39 Detectors on Aircraft -- 3.2. Radiation Measured at Aviation Altitudes -- 3.2.1. LET Spectra and Dose Equivalent
3.2.2. Comparison of Results Measured with CR-39 Detectors and Calculated by FLUKA -- 3.3. Charge Spectra and Radiation of Cosmic Ray Nuclei at Aviation Altitudes -- 3.3.1. Introduction -- 3.3.2. Data Collection and Reduction -- 3.3.3. Charge Spectra of Cosmic Ray Nuclei at Aviation Altitudes -- 3.3.4. Radiation of Cosmic Ray Nuclei at Aviation Altitudes -- Conclusion -- Chapter 4: Radiation Measured with CR-39 Detectors in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) -- 4.1. Radiation Field in LEO -- 4.2. Space Radiation Dosimetry Methods -- 4.3. Radiation Measured for STS Space Missions -- 4.3.1. Introduction -- 4.3.2. Physical Principles for Different Radiation Dosimeters -- 4.3.3. LET Spectrum Method for Radiation Measurement Using CR-39 Detectors -- 4.3.4. Radiation Measured with TEPC and CR-39 Detectors -- 4.3.4.1. Radiation Measured with TEPC and Determined with CR-39 Detectors -- 4.3.4.2. Results and Comparisons of the Radiation Measured with TEPC and CR-39 for STS-114 and STS-121 -- 4.3.4.3. Results Combined from Those Measured with TLDs/OSLDs and CR-39 PNTDs -- 4.4. Radiation Measured for ISS Space Missions -- 4.4.1. Introduction -- 4.4.2. Results Measured with TEPC and CR-39 Detectors -- 4.4.3. Results Combined from Those Measured with TLDs/OSLDs and CR-39 PNTDs -- 4.5. Radiation Measured for Matroshka Experiments -- 4.5.1. Matroshka Experiments -- 4.5.2. Radiation Measured for Matroshka-1 and -2 Experiments with CR-39 Detectors -- 4.5.3. Combination Results Measured with Passive Dosimeters -- 4.6. Radiation Measured at Different Inclinations -- 4.7. Radiation Measured during the Recent Solar Minimum (2008-2010) -- Conclusion -- Chapter 5: Ground Environmental Radiation Measured with CR-39 Detectors -- 5.1. Introduction -- 5.2. LET Spectrum Method Using CR-39 Detectors for Ground Radiation Research
5.3. LET Spectra of Ground Environmental Radiation Measured with CR-39 Detectors -- Chapter 6: Charge Spectra of Galactic Cosmic Rays Measured with CR-39 Detectors in LEO -- 6.1. Introduction -- 6.2. Exposures of CR-39 Detectors in LEO and Data Analysis -- 6.3. Charge Spectra of Galactic Cosmic Rays Measured in LEO -- 6.4. Radiation Measured for GCR Nuclei -- Conclusion -- Chapter 7: Radiation Risk Estimation Using LET Spectrum Measured with CR-39 Detectors -- 7.1. Role of High LET Radiation in Radiobiology -- 7.2. Experimental Method of Radiation Risk Estimation -- 7.3. Radiation Risk Estimated with Experimental Method -- 7.3.1. Radiation Risk from Ground Natural Radiation -- 7.3.2. Radiation Risk from Radiation Exposure at Aviation Altitudes -- 7.3.3. Radiation Risk from Radiation Exposure in Space -- Conclusion -- Chatper 8: Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (CMNS) -- 8.1. Introduction -- 8.2. Low Energy Nuclear Reactions -- 8.3. LET Spectrum Method of CR-39 Detectors Used in LENRs Research -- 8.3.1. Approach of Data Scan and Acquisition -- 8.3.2. Generating of LET Spectrum, Energy Distribution and Charge Distribution -- 8.4. LET Spectrum and Energy Distribution for LENR Particles -- 8.5. Events of Triple Alpha Particles -- 8.6. Future Work -- 8.7. New Generation of Green Energy Source -- Conclusion -- Acknowledgments -- Chapter 9: Search for Magnetic Monopoles Using CR-39 Detectors -- 9.1. Magnetic Monopole -- 9.2. Search for Magnetic Monopoles with Ultra-High REL Using CR-39 Detectors -- 9.3. Calibration of Very High Restricted Energy Loss for CR-39 Detectors -- 9.4. Track Parameters Measured and Calculated for the Event with Ultra-High REL -- 9.5. Physical Quantities Measured and Calculated for the Event with Ultra-High REL -- 9.6. A Magnetic Monopole May Be Found -- 9.7. Mass of the Possible Magnetic Monopole -- Conclusion -- Acknowledgments
Acknowledgments -- References -- Index
Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources
Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries
鏈接 Print version: Zhou, Dazhuang CR-39 Plastic Nuclear Track Detectors in Physics Research Hauppauge : Nova Science Publishers, Incorporated,c2012 9781613244876
主題 Nuclear track detectors.;Cosmic rays -- Measurement
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